David M. Arana

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The Hog1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase mediates an adaptive response to both osmotic and oxidative stress in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. This protein also participates in two distinct morphogenetic processes, namely the yeast-to-hypha transition (as a repressor) and chlamydospore formation (as an inducer). We show here that repression of(More)
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans responds to stress by phosphorylation of the Hog1 MAP kinase. PBS2 was cloned and shown to encode the MAP kinase kinase that is involved in this activation, as determined by immunoblot analyses using antibodies that recognize the active form of the target Hog1 protein. Characterization of pbs2 mutants revealed that(More)
The role of four mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in the survival of Candida albicans following infection of human phagocytes has been addressed through the analysis of mutants defective in their respective MAP kinase. While the contribution of the cell integrity (Mkc1-mediated) or mating (Cek2-mediated) pathways is relatively minor to(More)
Cells respond to environmental changes triggering adaptive responses which are, in part, mediated by a transcriptional response. These responses are complex and are dependent on different transcription factors. The present work reports the implication of the Sko1 protein in several processes relevant to the physiology of Candida albicans. First, Sko1 acts(More)
Several isolates of four different carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae species were recovered from a patient hospitalized for 4 months in a teaching hospital in Madrid. These species comprised seven Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST15, four Escherichia coli belonging to ST2531, two Serratia marcescens and one Citrobacter freundii. This patient(More)
Innate immunity to Candida albicans depends upon the recognition of molecular patterns on the fungal cell wall. However, the masking of major components such as beta-glucan seems to be a mechanism that fungi have evolved to avoid immune cell recognition through the dectin-1 receptor. Although the role of C. albicans mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
MAP kinases are dual phosphorylated protein kinases, present in eukaryotes, which mediate differentiation programs and immune responses in mammalian cells. In pathogenic fungi, MAP kinases are key elements that control adaptation to environmental stress. Recent studies have shown that these pathways have an essential role in the control of essential(More)
Cells need to adapt to the external environment in order to survive. Signal transduction pathways are crucial mechanisms that allow cells to sense and respond to extracellular stimuli. Among the signal transduction pathways, we point out the cascades mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The MAPKs are conserved from yeast to human and play(More)
Signals from the TCR that specifically contribute to effector versus memory CD8⁺ T cell differentiation are poorly understood. Using mice and adoptively transferred T lymphocytes lacking the small GTPase N-ras, we found that N-ras-deficient CD8⁺ T cells differentiate efficiently into antiviral primary effectors but have a severe defect in generating(More)
CONTEXT Beta-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that protect microorganisms from the lethal effects of β-lactam antibiotics. The production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to these antibiotics, especially in Gram-negative bacteria. OBJECTIVE Review the magnitude of the problem of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in(More)