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BACKGROUND A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. METHODS We describe the clinical(More)
In tomato, Ve is implicated in race-specific resistance to infection by Verticillium species causing crop disease. Characterization of the Ve locus involved positional cloning and isolation of two closely linked inverted genes. Expression of individual Ve genes in susceptible potato plants conferred resistance to an aggressive race 1 isolate of Verticillium(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the major mediator of excitotoxicity. Although physiological activation of the NMDA receptor is necessary for cell survival, overactivation is a signal for cell death. Several pathways are activated through NMDA receptor stimulation, most of which can contribute to excitotoxicity. These include events leading to(More)
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the autoantigens of a new category of treatment-responsive paraneoplastic encephalitis. METHODS Analysis of clinical features, neuropathological findings, tumors, and serum/cerebrospinal fluid antibodies using rat tissue, neuronal cultures, and HEK293 cells expressing subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). RESULTS(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the clinical and immunological features of a novel autoantigen related to limbic encephalitis (LE) and the effect of patients' antibodies on neuronal cultures. METHODS We conducted clinical analyses of 10 patients with LE. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the antigens. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells(More)
The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor plays an important role in the molecular mechanisms of learning, memory and excitotoxicity. NMDA receptors are highly permeable to calcium, which can lead to the activation of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain. In the present study, the ability of calpain to modulate NMDA receptor function through direct(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disorder which diagnosis depends on sensitive and specific antibody testing. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of serum and CSF antibody testing in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and the relation between titres, relapses,(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate increases in intracellular calcium that can be modulated by protein kinase C (PKC). As PKC modulation of NMDA receptors in neurons is complex, we studied the effects of PKC activation on recombinant NMDA receptor-mediated calcium rises in a nonneuronal mammalian cell line, human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293).(More)
BACKGROUND Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare disorder characterized by short episodes of involuntary movement attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movements. Although a genetic basis is suspected in idiopathic cases, the gene has not been discovered. Establishing strict diagnostic criteria will help genetic studies. METHODS The authors(More)