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OBJECTIVE The study aims to evaluate the long-term clinical and technical efficacy of recently developed percutaneously introducible plate electrodes for spinal cord stimulation. METHODS Twenty-one patients diagnosed with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) or lumboischialgia were implanted with a small profile plate-type electrode. Patients were(More)
PURPOSE Laxative-refractory opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is defined as OIC despite using 2 laxatives with a different mechanism of action (based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System level 4 term [contact laxatives, osmotically acting laxatives, softeners/emollients, enemas, and others]). OIC has a significant impact on the(More)
OBJECTIVE The use of multiple cylindrical leads and multicolumn and single column paddle leads in spinal cord stimulation offers many advantages over the use of a single cylindrical lead. Despite these advantages, placement of multiple cylindrical leads or a paddle lead requires a more invasive surgical procedure. Thus, the ideal situation for lead delivery(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE During spinal cord stimulation there is sometimes a need to replace defective leads. Percutaneous lead replacement by recannulating the epidural space and "steering" the new lead to the prior location is sometimes very difficult, resulting in diminished analgesia. Since fibrous deposits are known to form around epidural catheters(More)
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