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Spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a relatively infrequent event, and these individuals provide a unique opportunity to characterize correlates of protective immunity as an important first step in the development of vaccine candidates. The aim of this study was to directly and comprehensively enumerate HCV-nonstructural protein 3(More)
Development of a subunit vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is likely to be dependent on the identification of T cell antigens that induce strong proliferation and interferon gamma production from healthy purified protein derivative (PPD)(+) donors. We have developed a sensitive and rapid technique for screening an Mtb genomic library expressed in(More)
Control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires Th1-type immunity, of which CD8+ T cells play a unique role. High frequency Mtb-reactive CD8+ T cells are present in both Mtb-infected and uninfected humans. We show by limiting dilution analysis that nonclassically restricted CD8+ T cells are universally present, but predominate in(More)
CD8(+) T cells are essential for host defense to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Salmonella species, and Listeria monocytogenes, yet the repertoire and dominance pattern of human CD8 antigens for these pathogens remains poorly characterized. Tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mtb infection, remains one of(More)
Acute infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) rarely is identified, and hence, the determinants of spontaneous resolution versus chronicity remain incompletely understood. In particular, because of the retrospective nature and unknown source of infection in most human studies, direct evidence for emergence of escape mutations in immunodominant major(More)
Previous studies in mice and humans have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense to Mtb. Recently, we have described human, Mtb-specific CD8+ cells that are neither HLA-A, B, or C nor group 1 CD1 restricted, and have found that these cells comprise the dominant CD8+ T cell response in latently infected individuals. In this report, three(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that detects microbial metabolites presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecule MR1. The highly conserved nature of MR1 in conjunction with biased MAIT TCRα chain usage is widely thought to indicate limited ligand presentation(More)
Previous studies in murine models, including those using the beta2 microglobulin knockout mouse, have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). At present, little is understood about these cells in the human immune response to tuberculosis. This report demonstrates the existence of human Mtb-reactive(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality, and is responsible for more than 2 million deaths a year. Reports about extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains have further heightened the sense of urgency for the development of novel strategies to prevent and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) resides in a long-lived phagosomal compartment that resists maturation. The manner by which Mtb antigens are processed and presented on MHC Class I molecules is poorly understood. Using human dendritic cells and IFN-gamma release by CD8(+) T cell clones, we examined the processing and presentation pathway for two Mtb-derived(More)