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The persistence of bacterial DNA over geological timespans remains a contentious issue. In direct contrast to in vitro based predictions, bacterial DNA and even culturable cells have been reported from various ancient specimens many million years (Ma) old [1–8]. As both ancient DNA studies and the revival of microorganisms are known to be susceptible to(More)
Chromatin structure is known to be a barrier to DNA repair and a large number of studies have now identified various factors that modify histones and remodel nucleosomes to facilitate repair. In response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation several histones are acetylated and this enhances the repair of DNA photoproducts by the nucleotide excision repair (NER)(More)
Diagenesis was studied in DNA obtained from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil) ranging from 10,000 to 400,000 years in age. Despite optimal preservation conditions, we found the sedimentary DNA to be severely modified by interstrand crosslinks; single- and double-stranded breaks; and freely exposed sugar, phosphate, and hydroxyl groups.(More)
1. An important target for conservation planning is the minimum amount of habitat needed in a landscape to ensure the persistence of a species. Appropriate targets can be determined by identifying thresholds in the amount of habitat, below which persistence, abundance or occupancy declines rapidly. Although some studies have identified habitat thresholds,(More)
Experimental animal models are extremely valuable for the study of human diseases, especially those with underlying genetic components. The exploitation of various animal models, from fruitflies to mice, has led to major advances in our understanding of the etiologies of many diseases, including cancer. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a form of cancer for(More)
Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence(More)
The ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight is immune suppressive. Recently we showed that solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (ultraviolet A + B; 295-400 nm), applied after immunization, suppressed immunologic memory and the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity to the common opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Further, we found that(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PPs) in DNA, which through gene mutations (e.g. in P53) may lead to skin carcinogenesis. Upon chronic low-level UV exposure, certain basal cells in mouse epidermis were reported to accumulate CPDs. These observations raised questions on whether these cells(More)
We have surveyed the biologically harmful radiation penetrating the water column along a transect in the western Gulf of Mexico using dosimeters consisting of intact viruses or naked calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA). The indigenous marine bacteriophage PWH3a-P1, which lytically infects the heterotrophic bacterium Vibrio natriegens (strain PWH3a), displayed decay(More)
In response to DNA damage, the E2F1 transcription factor is phosphorylated at serine 31 (serine 29 in mouse) by the ATM or ATR kinases, which promotes E2F1 protein stabilization. Phosphorylation of E2F1 also leads to the recruitment of E2F1 to sites of DNA damage, where it functions to enhance DNA repair. To study the role of this E2F1 phosphorylation event(More)