Learn More
Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the(More)
Wnt family members are critical to many developmental processes, and components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been linked to tumorigenesis in familial and sporadic colon carcinomas. Here we report the identification of two genes, WISP-1 and WISP-2, that are up-regulated in the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG transformed by Wnt-1, but not by(More)
Protein folding by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is physiologically critical; its disruption causes ER stress and augments disease. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. If stress persists, the UPR induces apoptotic cell death, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that unmitigated ER stress promoted(More)
Death receptors trigger apoptosis by activating the apical cysteine proteases caspase-8 and -10 within a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). c-FLIP (cellular FLICE inhibitory protein) is an enzymatically inactive relative of caspase-8 and -10 that binds to the DISC. Two major c-FLIP variants result from alternative mRNA splicing: a short, 26-kDa(More)
The role of carnosine, N-acetylcarnosine and homocarnosine as scavengers of reactive oxygen species and protectors against neuronal cell death secondary to excitotoxic concentrations of kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate was studied using acutely dissociated cerebellar granule cell neurons and flow cytometry. We find that carnosine, N-acetylcarnosine and(More)
This study aimed to (a) investigate the effect of using a hearing aid in conjunction with a cochlear implant in opposite ears on speech perception in quiet and in noise, (b) identify the speech information obtained from a hearing aid that is additive to the information obtained from a cochlear implant, and (c) explore the relationship between aided(More)
IL-33 is a novel member of the IL-1 cytokine family and a potent inducer of type 2 immunity, as mast cells and Th2 CD4+ T cells respond to IL-33 with the induction of type 2 cytokines such as IL-13. IL-33 mRNA levels are extremely high in the CNS, and CNS glia possess both subunits of the IL-33R, yet whether IL-33 is produced by and affects CNS glia has not(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infection, protecting the host during the development of adaptive immunity and critically affecting the nature of the adaptive response. We show that, in contrast to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), the related protein TWEAK attenuates the transition from innate to adaptive mechanisms. TWEAK-/-(More)
Although food prices in major world markets are at or near a historical low, there is increasing concern about food security-the ability of the world to provide healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for all its peoples. This article is an introduction to a collection of reviews whose authors were asked to explore the major drivers affecting the food(More)