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BACKGROUND/AIMS The disodium disuccinate derivative of astaxanthin (DDA) is a carotenoid antioxidant under development for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular events. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in platelet activation. This study seeks to investigate the effects of a reactive oxygen species(More)
In this work, we investigated the formation, reactivity, and antiplatelet activity of various mixed disulfide conjugates of clopidogrel. Our results showed that the production of the active metabolite (AM) from 2-oxoclopidogrel by human liver microsomes (HLMs) is greatly affected by the thiol reductants used. Among the 10 thiol compounds tested, glutathione(More)
Several glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been demonstrated to protect the ischemic heart against reperfusion injury, in part, by modulating activation of the complement cascade. The present study assessed the cardioprotective effects of sulodexide (KRX-101), a mixture of GAGs composed of 80% low-molecular mass heparin and 20% dermatan sulfate. KRX-101 differs(More)
Carotenoids are a naturally occurring group of compounds that possess antioxidant properties. Most natural carotenoids display poor aqueous solubility and tend to form aggregates in solution. Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (DDA; Cardax) is a water-dispersible synthetic carotenoid that rapidly and preferentially associates with serum albumin, thereby(More)
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is one of the commonest complications associated with contrast media (CM). Although the exact etiology of CIAKI remains unclear, one hypothesis involves vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles resulting in renal ischemia. Increased renal blood flow, therefore, might represent an attractive target for the(More)
Reactive oxygen species are a key mediator of myocardial reperfusion injury. Endogenous cellular defenses against reactive oxygen species often become overwhelmed after ischemia and reperfusion. Therefore, exogenous supplementation of various antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to protect against reperfusion. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an(More)
BACKGROUND Although widely used, the effects of steroid "bursts" on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially with long-term, concomitant topical steroids use, have not been studied. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of a prednisone burst, long-term intranasal steroids, and inhaled fluticasone propionate on the suppression and recovery of adrenal(More)
Pain associated with inflammation involves prostaglandins synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways while thromboxane A(2) formed by platelets from AA via cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) mediates thrombosis. COX-1 and COX-2 are both targets of nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) including aspirin(More)
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the most abundant group of heteropolysaccharides found in the body. These long unbranched molecules contain a repeating disaccharide unit. GAGs are located primarily in the extracellular matrix or on the surface of cells. These molecules serve as lubricants in the joints while at the same time providing structural rigidity to(More)
Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been the standard of care in the United States for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, the effectiveness of clopidogrel varies significantly among different sub-populations due to inter-individual variability. In this(More)