David Laurence Modiano

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High mutation rate in mammalian mitochondrial DNA generates a highly divergent pool of alleles even within species that have dispersed and expanded in size recently. Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human mitochondrial genomes revealed a significant (P < 0.01) excess of rRNA and nonsynonymous base substitutions among hotspots of recurrent mutation. Most(More)
The variation of 77 biallelic sites located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 608 male subjects from 22 African populations. This survey revealed a total of 37 binary haplotypes, which were combined with microsatellite polymorphism data to evaluate internal diversities and to estimate coalescence ages of the binary(More)
Haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu --> Lys) is common in malarious areas of West Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Conclusive evidence exists on the protective role against severe malaria of haemoglobin S (HbS; beta6Glu --> Val) heterozygosity, whereas conflicting results for the HbC trait have been reported and no epidemiological data exist on the possible(More)
The comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneties in the response to the infection. We report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric West African ethnic groups, Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibé,(More)
We report a genome-wide association (GWA) study of severe malaria in The Gambia. The initial GWA scan included 2,500 children genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip, and a replication study included 3,400 children. We used this to examine the performance of GWA methods in Africa. We found considerable population stratification, and also that signals of(More)
Nucleotide variation was examined in an 8 kb intronic DNA bordering exon 44 of the human dystrophin gene on Xp21. Thirty-six polymorphisms (substitutions, small insertions/deletions and one (T)n microsatellite) were found using SSCP/heteroduplex analysis of DNA samples from mixed Europeans, Papua New Guineans as well as from six African, three Asian and two(More)
Previous interethnic comparative studies on the susceptibility to malaria performed in West Africa showed that Fulani are more resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria than are sympatric ethnic groups. This lower susceptibility is not associated to classic malaria-resistance genes, and the analysis of the immune response to P. falciparum sporozoite and(More)
Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate, parasite density and anti-CS antibodies were assessed in 196 subjects (age > 10 yrs) belonging to three sympatric West African ethnic groups, namely Mossi, Rimaibé and Fulani, all exposed to very high seasonal malaria transmission in the same rural village near Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. No interethnic differences were(More)
Malaria elimination strategies require surveillance of the parasite population for genetic changes that demand a public health response, such as new forms of drug resistance. Here we describe methods for the large-scale analysis of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum by deep sequencing of parasite DNA obtained from the blood of patients with malaria,(More)
We present a second-order Godunov algorithm to solve time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on irregular domains. Our approach is based on a formally consistent discretization of the conservation laws on a finitevolume grid obtained from intersecting the domain with a Cartesian grid. We address the small-cell stability problem associated(More)