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The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern of SmaI digests of 29 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris were determined. Unrelated strains yielded markedly different patterns of digestion products. Bacteriophage-resistant derivatives of four strains, generated by a method analogous to that used regularly in some cheese(More)
A physical map of the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DL11 was constructed by using the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field mode of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in one- and two-dimensional separations to analyze restriction digests of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA. The map, which shows all the observed NotI and SmaI sites (six(More)
Bacteriophage c6A is a lytic phage that infects strains of Lactococcus lactis. Infection of L. lactis strain C6 resulted in inhibition of culture growth within 10 min, mature intracellular phage particles appeared after 17.5 min, and cell lysis occurred after 25 min. A culture of strain C6 carrying 3H-labelled DNA was infected with c6A, and the fate of the(More)
OBJECTIVES Conflicting findings on associations between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's weight status demand attention in order to inform effective interventions. We assess relationships between the food and PA environments in inner-city neighborhoods and children's weight status and address sources of conflicting results of(More)
BACKGROUND Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by school-aged children. PURPOSE This study identifies the association of parents' perceptions of the(More)