Learn More
The authors examined the question of whether a decrease in the efficiency of inhibitory processing with aging is a general phenomenon. Thirty elderly and 32 young adults performed a series of tasks from which the authors could extract measures of inhibitory function. The tasks and task components included response compatibility, negative priming, stopping,(More)
Dual-task studies assessed the effects of cellular-phone conversations on performance of a simulated driving task. Performance was not disrupted by listening to radio broadcasts or listening to a book on tape. Nor was it disrupted by a continuous shadowing task using a handheld phone, ruling out, in this case, dual-task interpretations associated with(More)
This research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. The authors found that these conversations impaired driver's reactions to vehicles braking in front of them. The authors assessed whether this impairment could be attributed to a withdrawal of attention from the visual scene, yielding a form of inattention(More)
The authors examined whether the learning and performance of dual tasks by young and old adults could be enhanced through training. Adults were trained with either a fixed-priority or variable-priority training strategy on a monitoring task and an alphabet-arithmetic task and then transferred to a scheduling and a paired-associates running memory task.(More)
Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. BACKGROUND Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the(More)
Earlier investigations have found mixed evidence of working memory impairment in autism. The present study examined working memory in a high-functioning autistic sample, relative to both a clinical control group diagnosed with Tourette Syndrome and a typically developing control group. No group differences were found across three tasks and five dependent(More)
This study used information processing paradigms to provide a detailed examination of executive function abilities in autism. The performance of non-retarded autistic children was compared with that of two matched control groups, one with Tourette Syndrome and the other developmentally normal. Autistic subjects performed as well as controls on tasks(More)
This study examined inhibitory function in nonretarded children with autism (n = 13) and normally developing controls (n = 13) matched on age and IQ. Tasks measuring motor and cognitive components of inhibition were administered to both groups. On the Stop-Signal paradigm, children with autism were able to inhibit motor responses to neutral and prepotent(More)