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BACKGROUND Suboptimum medication adherence is common in the United States and leads to serious negative health consequences but may respond to intervention. PURPOSE To assess the comparative effectiveness of patient, provider, systems, and policy interventions that aim to improve medication adherence for chronic health conditions in the United States. (More)
OBJECTIVES We compared mortality of ex-prisoners and other state residents to identify unmet health care needs among former prisoners. METHODS We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1980 to 2005 to estimate the number of overall and cause-specific deaths among male ex-prisoners aged 20 to 69 years and used standardized(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of patient, provider, and systems interventions (Key Question [KQ] 1) or policy interventions (KQ 2) in improving medication adherence for an array of chronic health conditions. For interventions that are effective in improving adherence, we then assessed their effectiveness in improving health, health care(More)
HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in(More)
Directly observed therapy (DOT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is commonly used in correctional settings; however, the efficacy of DOT for treating HIV infection has not been determined. We prospectively assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens among 31 HIV-infected prison inmates who were receiving >or=1 antiretrovirals via(More)
This study assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related services in county jails and staff perceptions of HIV-infected inmates and their care. A statewide telephone questionnaire was administered to detention officers and health care workers providing medical services in North Carolina jails. Eighty-five percent of participating facilities employed(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the use of voluntary HIV testing among state prisoners in the North Carolina prison system. METHODS We calculated system-wide and facility-specific proportions and rates of adult inmates tested for HIV and estimated associations between testing status and inmate characteristics for prisoners in North Carolina. RESULTS Of the 54(More)
PURPOSE We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners' health care needs. METHODS We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among black and white male prisoners ages 20-79 years and used standardized mortality(More)
Imprisonment provides opportunities for the diagnosis and successful treatment of HIV, however, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy are frequently lost following release due to suboptimal access and utilization of health care and services. In response, some have advocated for development of intensive case-management interventions spanning incarceration(More)
Improving testing and uptake to care among highly impacted populations is a critical element of Seek, Test, Treat and Retain strategies for reducing HIV incidence in the community. HIV disproportionately impacts prisoners. Though, incarceration provides an opportunity to diagnose and initiate therapy, treatment is frequently disrupted after release. Though(More)