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The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi.(More)
Chytridiomycota (chytrids) is the only phylum of true Fungi that reproduces with motile spores (zoospores). Chytrids currently are classified into five orders based on habitat, zoospore characters and life cycles. In this paper we estimate the phylogeny of the chytrids with DNA sequences from the ribosomal RNA operon (18S+5.8S+28S subunits). To our surprise(More)
BACKGROUND Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells targeting CD19 may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies and induce remission in patients with refractory disease. METHODS We infused autologous T cells transduced with a(More)
Tumor immunotherapy with T lymphocytes, which can recognize and destroy malignant cells, has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumor-associated antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) composed of antibody binding domains connected to domains that activate T cells could overcome tolerance by allowing T cells to(More)
The genetic structure of populations of Schizophyllum commune was inferred from electrophoretic variation among 136 individuals at 11 polymorphic allozyme loci to determine the extent of geographic differentiation in this widespread mushroom species. The majority of the genetic variation was contained within populations; however, considerable genetic(More)
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells with specificity for CD19 have shown promise in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It remains to be established whether chimeric antigen receptor T cells have clinical activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Two children with relapsed and refractory pre-B-cell ALL received infusions of T(More)
We designed a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor with specificity for the B-cell antigen CD19, coupled with CD137 (a costimulatory receptor in T cells [4-1BB]) and CD3-zeta (a signal-transduction component of the T-cell antigen receptor) signaling domains. A low dose (approximately 1.5×10(5) cells per kilogram of body weight) of(More)
The chytrids (Chytridiomycota) are morphologically simple aquatic fungi that are unified by their possession of zoospores that typically have a single, posteriorly directed flagellum. This study addresses the systematics of the chytrids by generating a phylogeny of ribosomal DNA sequences coding for the small subunit gene of 54 chytrids, with emphasis on(More)
As immune-based therapies for cancer become potent, more effective, and more widely available, optimal management of their unique toxicities becomes increasingly important. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a potentially life-threatening toxicity that has been observed following administration of natural and bispecific antibodies and, more recently,(More)
Patients with multiply relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 have the potential to improve on the low complete response rates with conventional therapies by inducing sustained remissions in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. We previously(More)