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To examine the functions of electrical synapses in the transmission of signals from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells, we generated connexin36 knockout mice. Reporter expression indicated that connexin36 was present in multiple retinal neurons including rod photoreceptors, cone bipolar cells, and AII amacrine cells. Disruption of electrical synapses(More)
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a form of hereditary neuropathy with demyelination. Recently, this disorder was mapped to chromosome Xq13.1. The gene for the gap junction protein connexin32 is located in the same chromosomal segment, which led to its consideration as a candidate gene for CMTX. With the use of Northern (RNA) blot and(More)
We have examined the expression of a gap junction protein, connexin32 (Cx32), in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. In peripheral nerve, Cx32 is found in the paranodal myelin loops and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures of myelinating Schwann cells, and the levels of Cx32 protein and mRNA change in parallel with those of other myelin-related genes during(More)
Although both Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes express connexin32 (Cx32), the loss of this connexin causes demyelination only in the PNS. To determine whether oligodendrocytes might express another connexin that can function in place of Cx32, we searched for novel CNS-specific connexins using reverse transcriptase-PCR and degenerate primers. We identified(More)
Northern blot analysis of rat heart mRNA probed with a cDNA coding for the principal polypeptide of rat liver gap junctions demonstrated a 3.0-kb band. This band was observed only after hybridization and washing using low stringency conditions; high stringency conditions abolished the hybridization. A rat heart cDNA library was screened with the same cDNA(More)
Inhibitory interneurons often generate synchronous activity as an emergent property of their interconnections. To determine the role of electrical synapses in such activity, we constructed mice expressing histochemical reporters in place of the gap junction protein Cx36. Localization of the reporter with somatostatin and parvalbumin suggested that Cx36 was(More)
Astrocytes form extensive gap junctions with other astrocytes and with oligodendrocytes. Junctional communication between CNS glia is likely of critical importance because loss of the gap junction channel-forming proteins, connexins Cx32 and Cx47, result in severe demyelination. However, CNS glia express at least six connexins, and the cellular origins and(More)
Mutations in Cx32, a gap-junction channel-forming protein, result in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system. However, although oligodendrocytes express Cx32, central myelination is unaffected. To explore this discrepancy, we searched for additional oligodendrocyte connexins. We found Cx47, which is(More)
Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provide inhibitory input to thalamic relay cells and generate synchronized activity during sleep and seizures. It is widely assumed that TRN cells interact only via chemical synaptic connections. However, we show that many neighboring pairs of TRN neurons in rats and mice are electrically coupled. In(More)
Neurons of the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) form the climbing fibers that excite Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. IO neurons are electrically coupled through gap junctions, and they generate synchronous, subthreshold oscillations of membrane potential at approximately 5-10 Hz. Experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that both the(More)