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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
The selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor atomoxetine (formerly called tomoxetine or LY139603) has been shown to alleviate symptoms in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We investigated the mechanism of action of atomoxetine in ADHD by evaluating the interaction of atomoxetine with monoamine transporters, the effects on(More)
Absence of functional FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. Abnormalities in synaptic processes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus contribute to cognitive deficits in Fragile X patients. So far, the potential roles of cerebellar deficits have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that both global and Purkinje cell-specific knockouts of Fmr1 show(More)
We previously reported the isolation of a gene (FMR-1) expressed in brain at the fragile X locus. One exon of this gene lies within an EcoRI fragment that exhibits length variation in fragile X patients. This exon also contains the CGG repeat within the CpG island hypermethylated in fragile X patients. To study the involvement of the FMR-1 gene in the(More)
air masses dominated by coarse-mode versus fine-mode particles. Sampling considerations imply that care must be taken when assessing monthly global aerosol direct radiative forcing and AOD trends with these products, but they can be used directly for many other applications, such as regional AOD gradient and aerosol air mass type mapping and aerosol(More)
Fragile X syndrome is caused by a loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein which forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, mRNA ligands associated with FMRP have been identified. However, the mechanism by which FMRP regulates the(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
We analyze a multi-year record of aerosol smoke plume heights derived from observations over North America made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on board the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite. We characterize the magnitude and variability of smoke plume heights for various biomes, and assess the contribution of local(More)
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an(More)