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Adults express two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GAD67 and GAD65, which are encoded by different independently regulated genes, a situation that differs from that of other neurotransmitters. In this article, J-J. Soghomonian and David Martin review current knowledge on the differences between these two isoforms. Both isoforms are present in(More)
Mirror-image allodynia is a mysterious phenomenon that occurs in association with many clinical pain syndromes. Allodynia refers to pain in response to light touch/pressure stimuli, which normally are perceived as innocuous. Mirror-image allodynia arises from the healthy body region contralateral to the actual site of trauma/inflammation. Virtually nothing(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized in brain in at least two compartments, commonly called the transmitter and metabolic compartments, and because regulatory processes must serve the physiologic function of each compartment, the regulation of GABA synthesis presents a complex problem. Brain contains at least two molecular forms of glutamate(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is acutely expressed following focal cerebral ischemia, but its pathophysiological role remains to be extensively characterized. In this study we determined the effect of inhibiting TNF-alpha on the microvascular perfusion impairment and ischemic injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).(More)
Calcimimetic compounds, which activate the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor (CaR) and inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, are under experimental study as a treatment for hyperparathyroidism. This report describes the salient pharmacodynamic properties, using several test systems, of a new calcimimetic compound, cinacalcet HCl. Cinacalcet HCl(More)
Spinal proinflammatory cytokines are powerful pain-enhancing signals that contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain). Recently, one proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, was also implicated in the loss of analgesia upon repeated morphine exposure (tolerance). In contrast to prior literature, we demonstrate that the action of(More)
Exogenous acetate is preferentially metabolized by astrocytes in the CNS, but the biochemical basis for this selectivity is unknown. We observed that rat cortical astrocytes produce 14CO2 from 0.2 mM [14C]acetate at a rate of 0.43 nmol/min per milligram of protein, 18 times faster than cortical synaptosomes. Subsequent studies examined whether this was(More)
The expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor has previously been shown to be up-regulated in the spinal cord of several rat mononeuropathy models. This present study was undertaken to determine whether blocking the action of central interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor attenuates mechanical allodynia in a gender-specific manner in a(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, are released by activated glial cells in the spinal cord and play a major role in pain facilitation. These cytokines exert their actions, at least partially, through the activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). In turn, NF-kappaB(More)
Paclitaxel is a commonly used cancer chemotherapy drug that frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathies. The mechanisms underlying this dose-limiting side effect are poorly understood. Growing evidence supports that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), released by activated spinal glial cells and(More)