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On a community basis, urban soil contains a potentially large reservoir of accumulated lead. This study was undertaken to explore the temporal relationship between pediatric blood lead (BPb), weather, soil moisture, and dust in Indianapolis, Indiana; Syracuse, New York; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Indianapolis, Syracuse, and New Orleans pediatric BPb(More)
The essential element, manganese, can produce chronic neuromotor impairment related to basal ganglia (BG) damage when it is presented in excessive quantities. The uptake and elimination patterns of manganese following ingestion have been well studied and, under normal conditions, excretion appears to keep manganese levels under tight control. Less is known(More)
Mobile telephony brings clear economic and social benefits to its users. As handsets have become more affordable, ownership has reached staggering numbers, even in the most remote areas of the world. However, network coverage is often lacking in low population densities and low income rural areas of the developing world, where big telecoms often defer from(More)
While broadband Internet connectivity has reached a significant part of the world's population, those living in rural areas of the developing world suffer from poor Internet connectivity over slow long distance links, if they even have connectivity at all. While this has a general negative impact on Internet utilization, our social survey of users in the(More)
This paper provides insights on the nature of electricity supply in the rural village Macha, Zambia. It reports on case study research. Use of Information and Communication Technologies and access to e-services are constrained by the availability of electricity. In Zambia's rural areas, 3.5% of households have access to electricity supply. This paper shows(More)
There have been a number of rural wireless networks providing Internet access over the last decade but little is known about how the Internet is being used, how these networks perform and whether they follow similar trends when compared with Internet usage patterns in developed regions. We analyse a set of network traces from the Linknet wireless network in(More)
While Internet connectivity has reached a significant part of the world's population, those living in rural areas of the developing world are still largely disconnected. Recent efforts have provided Internet connectivity to a growing number of remote locations, yet Internet traffic demands cause many of these networks to fail to deliver basic quality of(More)
The Internet is evolving from a system of connections between humans and machines to a new paradigm of social connection. However, it is still dominated by a hub and spoke architecture with inter-connectivity between users typically requiring connections to a common server on the Internet. This creates a large amount of traffic that must traverse an(More)
Cellular networks have revolutionized the way people communicate in rural areas. At the same time, deployment of commercial-grade cellular networks in areas with low population density, such as in rural sub-Saharan Africa, is prohibitively expensive relative to the return of investment. As a result, 48% of the rural population in Africa remains(More)
The global migration of television (TV) from analogue to digital broadcasting will result in more spectrum bands (known as TV white space), previously used in analogue broadcasting, becoming available and unoccupied. A question is on how much white space is available and how can it be used opportunistically and dynamically without causing harmful(More)