Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human… (More)
NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,… (More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS) characterized by chronic inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology of EAE involves autoimmune CD4(+) T(h)1 cells. There is a striking inverse correlation between the occurrence of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. We… (More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies show that inflammatory processes may contribute to neuropathic pain. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inducible enzyme responsible for production of prostanoids, which may sensitise sensory neurones via the EP1 receptor. We have recently reported that while macrophages infiltrate injured nerves within days of injury, they express… (More)
BACKGROUND Biomedical treatment options for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are extremely limited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and efficacious technique when targeting specific areas of cortical dysfunction in major depressive disorder, and a similar approach could yield therapeutic benefits in ASD, if applied to relevant… (More)
Forty-nine children with distal upper limb nerve injury were studied at a mean follow-up of 2 years 3 months. Patients who were aged 5 years or younger at the time of nerve injury (15/49) had no chronic neuropathic pain symptoms or allodynia. Patients with allodynia on quantitative sensory testing but no spontaneous pain (8/49) were all older than 5 years… (More)
Two patients are reported in which one thumb has lost the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons. This is an uncommon injury in isolation, and these cases provide an opportunity to assess the functional importance of these musculotendinous units.
Three anomalies of the human flexor digitorum superficialis are presented. The normal development of this muscle from the amphibian to the human is discussed and the described anomalies of the muscle in humans classified.
Painful neuromas have been successfully treated by surgical procedures including relocation to muscle, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is secreted by tissues and promotes the expression of ion channels and neuropeptides in sensory neurons involved in pain transmission. We hypothesised that excess of NGF may… (More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE To explore the therapeutic benefit of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of bipolar depression. METHOD A 2 arm randomized controlled parallel design trial comparing the use of active sequential bilateral rTMS to a sham form of stimulation in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and… (More)