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Messenger RNA is produced by RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription, followed by processing of the primary transcript. Transcription, splicing and cleavage-polyadenylation can occur independently in vitro, but we demonstrate here that these processes are intimately linked in vivo. We show that the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the pol II large subunit(More)
Dynamic phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II CTD repeats (YS 2 PTS 5 PS 7) is coupled to transcription and may act as a " code " that controls mRNA synthesis and processing. To examine the "code" in budding yeast, we mapped genome-wide CTD S2, 5 and 7 phosphorylations (PO4) and compared them with the CTD-associated termination factors, Nrd1 and Pcf11.(More)
The c-myc gene comprises three exons with a single large AUG-initiated open reading frame extending from exon 2 through exon 3. Exon 1 lacks any AUG codons. Cells from a wide range of species produce two c-myc proteins that, while highly related, do not appear to arise from posttranslational interconversion. To understand the origin of the two proteins, we(More)
Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) ensures gene-specific regulation and RNA quality control. Structural considerations suggested a requirement for initiation-factor eviction in elongation-factor engagement and pausing of transcription complexes. Here we show that selective inhibition of Cdk7--part of TFIIH--increases TFIIE retention,(More)
We have analyzed several closely related members of the gene family encoding the variable regions of human immunoglobulin kappa light chains (V kappa genes). Two of these genes differ at a single nucleotide out of 940 bases sequenced, and are believed to be alleles of a locus called HK 101. This substitution results in an amino acid replacement in the first(More)
The c-myc gene product is a nuclear protein expressed in a wide variety of cell types. It has been implicated in the control of normal cell growth as well as transformation, but its exact function is unknown. When the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL60 is treated with retinoic acid, the cells differentiate into granulocytes, and there is a(More)
We report that a variety of transactivators stimulate elongation by RNA polymerase II. Activated transcription complexes have high processivity and are able to read through pausing and termination sites efficiently. In contrast, nonactivated and "squelched" transcription mostly arrests prematurely. Activators differ in the extent to which they stimulate(More)
DNA damage induces apoptosis and many apoptotic genes are regulated via alternative splicing (AS), but little is known about the control mechanisms. Here we show that ultraviolet irradiation (UV) affects cotranscriptional AS in a p53-independent way, through the hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) and a subsequent(More)
We have used the Xenopus oocyte injection system to investigate the sequence requirements of premature termination of transcription within the human c-myc gene. We show that in the oocyte, truncated RNAs are produced by RNA polymerase II with 5' ends at the P1 and P2 promoters and 3' ends at two T stretches (sites I and II) near the exon 1/intron 1(More)
The origins of our current understanding of control of transcription elongation lie in pioneering experiments that mapped RNA polymerase II on viral and cellular genes. These studies first uncovered the surprising excess of polymerase molecules that we now know to be situated at the at the 5' ends of most genes in multicellular organisms. The pileup of pol(More)