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The C-terminal heptad repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (pol II) is proposed to target pre-mRNA processing enzymes to nascent pol II transcripts, but this idea has not been directly tested in vivo. In vitro, the yeast mRNA capping enzymes Ceg1 and Abd1 bind specifically to the phosphorylated CTD. Here we show that yeast capping enzymes cross-link in(More)
The RNA polymerase II CTD is essential for 3' end cleavage of metazoan pre-mRNAs and binds 3' end processing factors in vitro. We show genetic and biochemical interactions between the CTD and the Pcf11 subunit of the yeast cleavage/polyadenylation factor, CFIA. In vitro binding to Pcf11 required phosphorylation of the CTD on Ser2 in the YSPTSPS heptad(More)
Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II C-terminal domain (CTD) repeats (1-YSPTSPS-7) is coupled to transcription and may act as a 'code' that controls mRNA synthesis and processing. To examine the code in budding yeast, we mapped genome-wide CTD Ser2, Ser5 and Ser7 phosphorylations and the CTD-associated termination factors Nrd1 and Pcf11.(More)
The universal pre-mRNA processing events of 5' end capping, splicing, and 3' end formation by cleavage/polyadenylation occur co-transcriptionally. As a result, the substrate for mRNA processing factors is a nascent RNA chain that is being extruded from the RNA polymerase II exit channel at 10-30 bases per second. How do processing factors find their(More)
Messenger RNA is produced by RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription, followed by processing of the primary transcript. Transcription, splicing and cleavage-polyadenylation can occur independently in vitro, but we demonstrate here that these processes are intimately linked in vivo. We show that the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the pol II large subunit(More)
The torpedo model of transcription termination by RNA polymerase II proposes that a 5'-3' RNA exonuclease enters at the poly(A) cleavage site, degrades the nascent RNA, and eventually displaces polymerase from the DNA. Cotranscriptional degradation of nascent RNA has not been directly demonstrated, however. Here we report that two exonucleases, Rat1 and(More)
Much of the complex process of RNP biogenesis takes place at the gene cotranscriptionally. The target for RNA binding and processing factors is, therefore, not a solitary RNA molecule but, rather, a transcription elongation complex (TEC) comprising the growing nascent RNA and RNA polymerase traversing a chromatin template with associated passenger proteins.(More)
Maturation of mRNA precursors often occurs simultaneously with their synthesis by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The co-transcriptional nature of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of coupling mechanisms that coordinate transcription with mRNA capping, splicing, editing and 3' end formation. Recent experiments using sophisticated new methods for(More)
We report a function of human mRNA decapping factors in control of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Decapping proteins Edc3, Dcp1a, and Dcp2 and the termination factor TTF2 coimmunoprecipitate with Xrn2, the nuclear 5'-3' exonuclease "torpedo" that facilitates transcription termination at the 3' ends of genes. Dcp1a, Xrn2, and TTF2 localize near(More)
Changes in promoter structure and occupation have been shown to modify the splicing pattern of several genes, evidencing a coupling between transcription and alternative splicing. It has been proposed that the promoter effect involves modulation of RNA pol II elongation rates. The C4 point mutation of the Drosophila pol II largest subunit confers on the(More)