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We propose a deep learning framework for modeling complex high-dimensional densities via Non-linear Independent Component Estimation (NICE). It is based on the idea that a good representation is one in which the data has a distribution that is easy to model. For this purpose, a non-linear deterministic transformation of the data is learned that maps it to a(More)
We show that training common regularized autoencoders resembles clustering, because it amounts to fitting a density model whose mass is concentrated in the directions of the individual weight vectors. We then propose a new activation function based on thresholding a linear function with zero bias (so it is truly linear not affine), and argue that this(More)
We propose zoneout, a novel method for regularizing RNNs. At each timestep, zoneout stochastically forces some hidden units to maintain their previous values. Like dropout, zoneout uses random noise to train a pseudo-ensemble, improving generalization. But by preserving instead of dropping hidden units, gradient information and state information are more(More)
[1] On the basis of Colorado State University (CSU) Na lidar observations over full diurnal cycles from May 2002 to April 2006, a harmonic analysis was performed to extract semidiurnal perturbations in mesopause region temperature and zonal and meridional winds over Fort Collins, Colorado (40.6°N, 105.1°W). The observed monthly results are in good agreement(More)
[1] Gravity waves in the mesopause region (80–105 km) may induce perturbations in OH Meinal Band emissions at $87 km. These perturbations can be observed by ground-based OH airglow imagers. In this paper, we present observations of concentric gravity waves (CGW) by the all-sky OH imager at Yucca Ridge Field Station (40.7°N, 104.9°W) near Fort Collins,(More)
The na lidar-observed temperature diurnal tidal perturbations, based on full-diurnal-cycle observations from 2002 to 2008, are compared with tidal wave measurements by the TIMED/SABER instrument to elucidate the nature of diurnal tidal-period perturbations observed locally. The diurnal amplitude and phase profiles deduced by the two instruments are in very(More)
The independent Office of the Actuary for CMS certified that the Pioneer ACO model has met the stringent criteria for expansion to a larger population. Significant savings have accrued and quality targets have been met, so the program as a whole appears to be working. Ironically, 13 of the initial 32 enrollees have left. We attribute this to the design of(More)
The response of planetary boundary layer (PBL) carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration to surface carbon fluxes is inversely proportional to the depth of that layer. The PBL, extending from the surface, interacts strongly with the biosphere and mixes fluxes of carbon, water, energy, and momentum throughout its depth by turbulent eddies. Its diurnal cycle(More)