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DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter(More)
Here, we use single-molecule techniques to study the aggregation of α-synuclein, the protein whose misfolding and deposition is associated with Parkinson's disease. We identify a conformational change from the initially formed oligomers to stable, more compact proteinase-K-resistant oligomers as the key step that leads ultimately to fibril formation. The(More)
We describe hopping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy that allows noncontact imaging of the complex three-dimensional surfaces of live cells with resolution better than 20 nm. We tested the effectiveness of this technique by imaging networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mechanosensory stereocilia of mouse cochlear hair cells. The technique(More)
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Mechanisms of protein recognition have been extensively studied for single-domain proteins, but are less well characterized for dynamic multidomain systems. Ubiquitin chains represent a biologically important multidomain system that requires recognition by structurally diverse ubiquitin-interacting proteins. Ubiquitin chain conformations in isolation are(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous high spatial resolution observations of living A6 cells would greatly aid the elucidation of the relationship between structure and function and facilitate the study of major physiological processes such as the mechanism of action of aldosterone. Unfortunately, observing the micro-structural and functional changes in the membrane of(More)
It has been proposed that human telomerase RNA (hTR) interacts with dyskerin, prior to assembly of the telomerase holoenzyme. The direct interaction of dyskerin and hTR has not been demonstrated and is an experimentally challenging research problem because of difficulties in expressing and purifying dyskerin in quantities that are useful for biophysical(More)
The acute neurotoxicity of oligomeric forms of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how these oligomers might first impair neuronal function at the onset of pathology is poorly understood. Here we have examined the underlying toxic effects caused by an increase in levels of intracellular Aβ, an event(More)
Oligomers of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide have been implicated in the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. We have used single-molecule techniques to examine quantitatively the cellular effects of adding well characterized Aβ oligomers to primary hippocampal cells and hence determine the initial pathway of damage. We found that even picomolar(More)
Current knowledge of the structural changes taking place during clathrin-mediated endocytosis is largely based on electron microscopy images of fixed preparations and x-ray crystallography data of purified proteins. In this paper, we describe a study of clathrin-coated pit dynamics in living cells using ion conductance microscopy to directly image the(More)