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DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter(More)
Extracellular ATP initiates potent effects on sodium transport across renal epithelia through membrane-associated purinergic receptors. Dependent on the location of these receptors, ATP either inhibits or stimulates sodium reabsorption. Using A6 cells, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, and scanning ion conductance microscopy, we have(More)
AIM In the present study, a variety of high resolution microscopy techniques were used to visualize the organization and motion of lipids and proteins in the sperm's plasma membrane. We have addressed questions such as the presence of diffusion barriers, confinement of molecules to specific surface domains, polarized diffusion and the role of cholesterol in(More)
The enzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that has a critical role in the maintenance of stable telomeres in organisms that possess linear chromosomes. Using a recently developed single molecule fluorescence coincidence method, we have studied the RNA component of telomerase (hTR) and directly observed multimerisation of hTR in solution. RNA mutagenesis(More)
Here, we use single-molecule techniques to study the aggregation of α-synuclein, the protein whose misfolding and deposition is associated with Parkinson's disease. We identify a conformational change from the initially formed oligomers to stable, more compact proteinase-K-resistant oligomers as the key step that leads ultimately to fibril formation. The(More)
We describe hopping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy that allows noncontact imaging of the complex three-dimensional surfaces of live cells with resolution better than 20 nm. We tested the effectiveness of this technique by imaging networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mechanosensory stereocilia of mouse cochlear hair cells. The technique(More)
Mechanisms of protein recognition have been extensively studied for single-domain proteins, but are less well characterized for dynamic multidomain systems. Ubiquitin chains represent a biologically important multidomain system that requires recognition by structurally diverse ubiquitin-interacting proteins. Ubiquitin chain conformations in isolation are(More)
The inheritance of the histone H3 variant CENP-A in nucleosomes at centromeres following DNA replication is mediated by an epigenetic mechanism. To understand the process of epigenetic inheritance, or propagation of histones and histone variants, as nucleosomes are disassembled and reassembled in living eukaryotic cells, we have explored the feasibility of(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous high spatial resolution observations of living A6 cells would greatly aid the elucidation of the relationship between structure and function and facilitate the study of major physiological processes such as the mechanism of action of aldosterone. Unfortunately, observing the micro-structural and functional changes in the membrane of(More)
It has been proposed that human telomerase RNA (hTR) interacts with dyskerin, prior to assembly of the telomerase holoenzyme. The direct interaction of dyskerin and hTR has not been demonstrated and is an experimentally challenging research problem because of difficulties in expressing and purifying dyskerin in quantities that are useful for biophysical(More)