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Extracellular ATP initiates potent effects on sodium transport across renal epithelia through membrane-associated purinergic receptors. Dependent on the location of these receptors, ATP either inhibits or stimulates sodium reabsorption. Using A6 cells, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, and scanning ion conductance microscopy, we have(More)
In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a newly-discovered risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined the interactions between human clusterin and the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-β(1-40) peptide (Aβ(1-40)), which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of(More)
The enzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that has a critical role in the maintenance of stable telomeres in organisms that possess linear chromosomes. Using a recently developed single molecule fluorescence coincidence method, we have studied the RNA component of telomerase (hTR) and directly observed multimerisation of hTR in solution. RNA mutagenesis(More)
We describe hopping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy that allows noncontact imaging of the complex three-dimensional surfaces of live cells with resolution better than 20 nm. We tested the effectiveness of this technique by imaging networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mechanosensory stereocilia of mouse cochlear hair cells. The technique(More)
We describe the isolation and detailed structural characterization of stable toxic oligomers of α-synuclein that have accumulated during the process of amyloid formation. Our approach has allowed us to identify distinct subgroups of oligomers and to probe their molecular architectures by using cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) image reconstruction(More)
A key issue in understanding the pathogenic conditions associated with the aberrant aggregation of misfolded proteins is the identification and characterization of species formed during the aggregation process. Probing the nature of such species has, however, proved to be extremely challenging to conventional techniques because of their transient and(More)
The molecules on mammalian spermatozoa that mediate recognition and binding to the zona pellucida of the egg are still not understood. Current concepts favour their assembly into multimolecular complexes in the plasma membrane in response to cholesterol efflux, an important step during sperm capacitation. Here, we track in real time diffusion of(More)
Mechanisms of protein recognition have been extensively studied for single-domain proteins, but are less well characterized for dynamic multidomain systems. Ubiquitin chains represent a biologically important multidomain system that requires recognition by structurally diverse ubiquitin-interacting proteins. Ubiquitin chain conformations in isolation are(More)
We have detected individual DNA molecules labeled with two different fluorophores in solution by using two-color excitation and detection of coincidence fluorescence bursts. The confocal volumes of the two excitation lasers were carefully matched so that the volume overlap was 30% of the total confocal volume illuminated. This method greatly reduces the(More)
An array of surface-immobilized proton-fueled DNA nanomachines is reversibly actuated by cycling of the solution pH between 4.5 and 9, producing a conformational change between a four-stranded and a double-stranded structure, which elongates or shortens the separation distance between the 5' and 3' end of the DNA. By labeling the DNA 3' end with a(More)