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DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter(More)
In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a newly-discovered risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined the interactions between human clusterin and the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-β(1-40) peptide (Aβ(1-40)), which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of(More)
Extracellular ATP initiates potent effects on sodium transport across renal epithelia through membrane-associated purinergic receptors. Dependent on the location of these receptors, ATP either inhibits or stimulates sodium reabsorption. Using A6 cells, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, and scanning ion conductance microscopy, we have(More)
The molecules on mammalian spermatozoa that mediate recognition and binding to the zona pellucida of the egg are still not understood. Current concepts favour their assembly into multimolecular complexes in the plasma membrane in response to cholesterol efflux, an important step during sperm capacitation. Here, we track in real time diffusion of(More)
The enzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that has a critical role in the maintenance of stable telomeres in organisms that possess linear chromosomes. Using a recently developed single molecule fluorescence coincidence method, we have studied the RNA component of telomerase (hTR) and directly observed multimerisation of hTR in solution. RNA mutagenesis(More)
AIM In the present study, a variety of high resolution microscopy techniques were used to visualize the organization and motion of lipids and proteins in the sperm's plasma membrane. We have addressed questions such as the presence of diffusion barriers, confinement of molecules to specific surface domains, polarized diffusion and the role of cholesterol in(More)
We have developed a hybrid scanning ion conductance and scanning near-field optical microscope for the study of living cells. The technique allows quantitative, high-resolution characterization of the cell surface and the simultaneous recording of topographic and optical images. A particular feature of the method is a reliable mechanism to control the(More)
We describe hopping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy that allows noncontact imaging of the complex three-dimensional surfaces of live cells with resolution better than 20 nm. We tested the effectiveness of this technique by imaging networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mechanosensory stereocilia of mouse cochlear hair cells. The technique(More)
Here, we use single-molecule techniques to study the aggregation of α-synuclein, the protein whose misfolding and deposition is associated with Parkinson's disease. We identify a conformational change from the initially formed oligomers to stable, more compact proteinase-K-resistant oligomers as the key step that leads ultimately to fibril formation. The(More)
We have investigated the structure and unfolding kinetics of the human telomeric intramolecular G quadruplex by using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. An exploration of conformational heterogeneity revealed two stable folded conformations, in both sodium- and potassium-containing buffers, with small differences between their(More)