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Identified neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster were examined and reconstructed by serial section electron microscopy. Each motor neuron consists of a soma, a primary process leading directly from the soma to the motor axon which leaves the ganglion, and a group of secondary processes which branch from the primary process and ramify within(More)
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) often serve to modify genes with which they are associated. The influence of SSRs on gene regulation, transcription and protein function typically depends on the number of repeats, while mutations that add or subtract repeat units are both frequent and reversible. SSRs thus provide a prolific source of quantitative and(More)
Activity in the flight muscles and jump muscles in Drosophila can be stimulated by excitation of a pair of giant fibres that enter the thoracic ganglion from the brain. Contrary to previous descriptions, these giant fibres are not themselves motor axons. Each giant fibre contacts both a large motor axon and an interneuron. The motor axon innervates the(More)
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), sometimes described as genetic 'stutters,' are DNA tracts in which a short base-pair motif is repeated several to many times in tandem (e.g. CAGCAGCAG). These sequences experience frequent mutations that alter the number of repeats. Because SSRs are commonly located in promoters, untranslated regions and even coding(More)
The political feasibility of using prices to mitigate congestion depends on who receives the toll revenue. We argue that congestion pricing on freeways will have the greatest chance of political success if the revenue is distributed to cities, and particularly to cities through which the freeways pass. In contrast to a number of previous proposals, we argue(More)
The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we(More)
The stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster consists of about thiry neurons, mainly large monopolar cells, which have been well characterized physiologically. This paper presents an anatomical description of this ganglion, emphasizing synaptic connections in the neuropil. The neuron cell bodies are located on the dorsal surface of the ganglion. They send(More)
The peritrophic membrane of Drosophila melanogaster consists of four layers, each associated with a specific region of the folded epithelial lining of the cardia. The epithelium is adapted to produce this multilaminar peritrophic membrane by bringing together several regions of foregut and midgut, each characterized by a distinctively differentiated cell(More)