Learn More
We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the(More)
The health effects of bathing in coastal waters is an area of scientific controversy. We conducted the first ever randomised "trial" of an environmental exposure to measure the health effects of this activity. The trial was spread over four summers in four UK resorts and 1216 adults took part. Detailed interviews were used to collect data on potential(More)
From family medical practices 15775 men and women aged 65-80 years were identified and randomized into two groups: one group was invited for ultrasonographic screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and the other acted as age- and sex-matched controls. Of the 7887 invited for screening 5394 (68.4 per cent) accepted. AAA was detected in 218 (4.0 per(More)
Exposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters.(More)
All previously published epidemiological studies of the health effects of bathing in marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage contain three major methodological weaknesses in study design: (1) failure to control for the substantial amount of temporal and spatial variation in indicator organism densities shown to occur within just a few hours at(More)
Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather(More)
OBJECTIVES This study identified possible dose-response relationships among bathers exposed to marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage and subsequent risk of nonenteric illness. METHODS Four intervention follow-up studies were conducted within the United Kingdom. Healthy volunteers (n = 1273) were randomized into bather and nonbather groups.(More)
In April 2001, draft 'Guidelines' for safe recreational water environments were developed at a World Health Organization (WHO) expert consultation. Later the same month, these were presented and discussed at the 'Green Week' in Brussels alongside the on-going revision of the European Union Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EEC. The WHO Guidelines cover general(More)
Characterisation of faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations and export coefficients for catchments with particular combinations of land use and under specific climatic regimes is critical in developing models to predict daily loads and apportion sources of the microbial parameters used to regulate water quality. Accordingly, this paper presents a(More)