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Activation of innate immune receptors by host-derived factors exacerbates CNS damage, but the identity of these factors remains elusive. We uncovered an unconventional role for the microRNA let-7, a highly abundant regulator of gene expression in the CNS, in which extracellular let-7 activates the RNA-sensing Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and induces(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize molecular structures associated with pathogens as well as host-derived components and initiate an inflammatory innate immune response. Microglia represent the resident immune host defense and are the major inflammatory cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). We show here that TLR2-deficient mice develop a decreased(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key players of the innate and adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The original protein Toll in Drosophila melanogaster regulates both host defense and morphogenesis during development. Making use of real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry we systematically examined the expression of TLR1-9 and the(More)
Innate immune receptors represent an evolutionarily ancient system that allows organisms to detect and rapidly respond to pathogen- and host-derived factors. TLRs are predominantly expressed in immune cells and mediate such a response. Although this class of pattern recognition receptors is involved in CNS disorders, the knowledge of ligands leading to(More)
BACKGROUND It was our purpose to analyze long-term clinical outcome and to identify prognostic factors after Linac-based fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (Linac-based FSRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial meningiomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between 10/1995 and 03/2009, 297 patients with a median age of 59 years were(More)
Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a common benign tumor of the bone and is typically treated by thermal ablation with computed tomography (CT) guidance. Only a few cases of multicentric OO have been described. We here report the case of an 11-year-old boy with multicentric OO of the right femur treated with laser ablation under open high-field MRI guidance. The steps(More)
BACKGROUND Our purpose was to analyze the long-term clinical outcome and to identify prognostic factors after Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) on patients with brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of survival on(More)
For primary radiation therapy (RT) of prostate cancer, dose intensification is established as standard of care. Less is known on the role of dose intensification in the postprostatectomy setting for salvage RT. Thus, we aimed to identify and summarize the existing literature. In retrospective analyses, dose-intensified salvage RT showed a superior(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyperfractionated (HFRT) or accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (AHFRT) have been discussed as a potential treatment for glioblastoma based on a hypothesized reduction of late radiation injury and prevention of repopulation. HFRT and AHFRT have been examined extensively in the pre-Temozolomide era with inconclusive results. In this study(More)
Introduction. Incidence of meningioma increases with age. Surgery has been the mainstay treatment. Elderly patients, however, are at risk of severe morbidity. Therefore, we conducted this study to analyze long-term outcomes of linac-based fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for older adults (aged ≥65 years) with meningioma and determine prognostic(More)