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In order to cross a street without being run over, we need to be able to extract very fast hidden causes of dynamically changing multi-modal sensory stimuli, and to predict their future evolution. We show here that a generic cortical microcircuit motif, pyramidal cells with lateral excitation and inhibition, provides the basis for this difficult but(More)
General results from statistical learning theory suggest to understand not only brain computations, but also brain plasticity as probabilistic inference. But a model for that has been missing. We propose that inherently stochastic features of synaptic plasticity and spine motility enable cortical networks of neurons to carry out probabilistic inference by(More)
Although water vapour is the main species observed in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and water is the major constituent of cometary nuclei, limited evidence for exposed water-ice regions on the surface of the nucleus has been found so far. The absence of large regions of exposed water ice seems a common finding on the surfaces of many of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Past organ donation research has studied attitudes toward donation, predictors of signing donor cards, and distinguishing characteristics of donors vs. nondonors. The current study is the first to examine predictors of family members' satisfaction with the decision to consent or refuse donation of a dying loved one's organs or tissue. METHOD(More)
We reexamine in this article the conceptual and mathematical framework for understanding the organization of plasticity in spiking neural networks. We propose that inherent stochasticity enables synaptic plasticity to carry out probabilistic inference by sampling from a posterior distribution of synaptic parameters. This view provides a viable alternative(More)
NEVESIM is a software package for event-driven simulation of networks of spiking neurons with a fast simulation core in C++, and a scripting user interface in the Python programming language. It supports simulation of heterogeneous networks with different types of neurons and synapses, and can be easily extended by the user with new neuron and synapse(More)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most abundant species in cometary nuclei, but because of its high volatility, CO2 ice is generally only found beneath the surface. We report the infrared spectroscopic identification of a CO2 ice-rich surface area located in the Anhur region of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Spectral modeling shows that about 0.1% of the(More)
A recurrent spiking neural network is proposed that implements planning as probabilistic inference for finite and infinite horizon tasks. The architecture splits this problem into two parts: The stochastic transient firing of the network embodies the dynamics of the planning task. With appropriate injected input this dynamics is shaped to generate(More)
Synaptic plasticity is implemented and controlled through over thousand different types of molecules in the postsynaptic density and presynaptic boutons that assume a staggering array of different states through phosporylation and other mechanisms. One of the most prominent molecule in the postsynaptic density is CaMKII, that is described in molecular(More)