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OBJECTIVES New treatments for bipolar disorder have been reported since we first published survey-based expert consensus guidelines in 1996. The evidence for these treatments varies widely; data are especially limited regarding comparisons between treatments and how to sequence them. We therefore undertook a new survey of expert opinion in order to bridge(More)
OBJECTIVES Women constitute two-thirds of patients suffering from common depressive disorders. The treatment of depression in women is therefore a substantial public health concern. High-quality, empirical data on depressive disorders specific to women are limited. As a result, there are no comprehensive evidence-based practice guidelines on the best(More)
BACKGROUND This article describes the development of consensus medication algorithms for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder in the Texas public mental health system. To the best of our knowledge, the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) is the first attempt to develop and prospectively evaluate consensus-based medication(More)
The effects of intravenous amphetamine infusion (0.3 mg/kg) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and measures of autonomic and behavioral arousal were studied in 12 normal male volunteers in a placebo-controlled crossover design. Nonsignificant decreases were seen in CBF (measured by 133Xe inhalation), despite significant increases in autonomic and behavioral(More)
There is increasing concern for possible gender and ethnic differences on neuropsychological measures. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and ethnicity differences on the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test (CTMT) with a focus on individuals from 8 to 18 years of age. From the standardization sample, this included 251 boys and 306 girls with a mean(More)
The study of sleep and dreams has enjoyed a major breakthrough with recent findings from brain imaging studies in humans. Several independent groups have shown global deactivation of the brain during non rapid eye movement sleep and a regionally selective reactivation during rapid eye movement sleep. These results are complemented by new brain lesion and(More)
Women constitute two-thirds of patients suffering from common depressive disorders, making the treatment of depression in women a substantial public health concern. However, high-quality, empirical data on depressive disorders specific to women are limited, and there are no comprehensive evidence-based practice guidelines on the best treatments for these(More)
State-dependent aspects of consciousness are explored with particular attention to waking and dreaming. First, those phenomenological differences between waking and dreaming that have been established through subjective reports are reviewed. These differences are robustly expressed in most aspects of consciousness including perception, attention, memory,(More)
Thinking is known to be state dependent but a systematic study of how thinking in dreams differs from thinking while awake has not been done. The study consisted of analyzing the dream reports of 26 subjects who, in addition to providing dream reports also provided answers to questions about their thinking within the dream. Our hypothesis was that thinking(More)
Thymocyte development is a tightly controlled multi-step process involving selective elimination of self-reactive and non-functional T cells by apoptosis. This developmental process depends on signaling by Notch, IL-7 and active glucose metabolism. In this study, we explored the requirement of glucose for thymocyte survival and found that in addition to(More)