David K. Sherman

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OBJECTIVE This study used a model-fitting strategy to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to the core behavioral dimensions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 576 twin boys, aged 11 and 12 years. METHOD Teacher ratings and maternal structured interview reports composed of behavioral items including DSM-III and(More)
Are Asians and Asian Americans more or less likely to seek social support for dealing with stress than European Americans? On the one hand, the collectivist orientation of Asian countries might favor the sharing of stressful problems; on the other hand, efforts to maintain group harmony might discourage such efforts. In 2 studies, Koreans (Study 1) and(More)
Research has demonstrated that certain genotypes are expressed in different forms, depending on input from the social environment. To examine sensitivity to cultural norms regarding emotional support seeking as a type of social environment, we explored the behavioral expression of oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR) rs53576, a gene previously related to(More)
Social support is believed to be a universally valuable resource for combating stress, yet Asians and Asian Americans report that social support is not helpful to them, resist seeking it, and are underrepresented among recipients of supportive services. We distinguish between explicit social support (seeking and using advice and emotional solace) and(More)
The authors examined the congruency hypothesis that health messages framed to be concordant with dispositional motivations will be most effective in promoting health behaviors. Undergraduate students (N=63) completed a measure of approach/avoidance orientation (behavioral activation/inhibition system) and read a gain- or loss-framed message promoting(More)
People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people(More)
Stress is implicated in the development and progression of a broad array of mental and physical health disorders. Theory and research on the self suggest that self-affirming activities may buffer these adverse effects. This study experimentally investigated whether affirmations of personal values attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses.(More)
Why do people resist evidence that challenges the validity of long-held beliefs? And why do they persist in maladaptive behavior even when persuasive information or personal experience recommends change? We argue that such defens ive t endenc ies a re driven, in large part, by a fundamental motivation to protect the perceived worth and integrity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study examined probandwise concordance rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community sample of 194 monozygotic and 94 dizygotic male twins, ages 11-12 years. METHOD DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses of ADHD were based on rating scale reports from the twins' teachers and structured interview reports obtained(More)