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Psychopathy or psychopathic personality disorder represents a constellation of traits characterized by superficial charm, egocentricity, irresponsibility, fearlessness, persistent violation of social norms, and a lack of empathy, guilt, and remorse. Factor analyses of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI)typically yield two factors: Fearless(More)
This review examined (a) whether hypochondriacal/health-anxious individuals hold distinct assumptions about health and illness, (b) if triggering these assumptions leads to increased hypochondriacal concerns, and (c) whether these individuals perceive their bodily sensations differently from others (i.e., experience greater somatosensory amplification).(More)
On the basis of taxometric analyses of data sets that they created to pose interpretive challenges, S. R. H. Beach, N. Amir, and J. J. Bau (2005) cautioned that using comparison data simulated by J. Ruscio's programs can lead to inaccurate conclusions. Careful examination of S. R. H. Beach et al.'s methods and results plus reanalysis of their data fails to(More)
Although neurological evidence is used with increasing frequency in criminal trials, there is limited research examining the effects that this evidence has on juror decision-making in insanity trials. Participants (396) were presented with a case summary and psychological testimony and asked to render either a verdict of guilty or not guilty by reason of(More)
A number of recent studies have used Meehl's (1995) taxometric method to determine empirically whether one should model assessment-related constructs as categories or dimensions. The taxometric method includes multiple data-analytic procedures designed to check the consistency of results. The goal is to differentiate between strong evidence of categorical(More)
This meta-analysis examined the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and lead exposure in children and adolescents. Thirty-three studies published between 1972 and 2010 involving 10,232 children and adolescents were included. There was a small to medium association between inattention symptoms and lead exposure(More)
Few studies to date have examined the extent to which borderline personality features are best construed as representing an underlying dimension or a discrete class or taxon. The authors conducted taxometric analyses using a large-scale sample of male (n=787) and female (n=368) prison inmates who had completed the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. C.(More)
OBJECTIVE Component studies compare standard treatments to treatments with added components or dismantled components. A previous meta-analysis (Ahn & Wampold, 2001) failed to find any differences in outcome between treatments with more components and those with fewer components, leading the authors to conclude that common factors and not specific(More)
OBJECTIVE There is evidence that individuals high in hypochondriasis overestimate the likelihood of ambiguous symptoms being indicative of serious illness. However, it is not known whether this tendency is unique to hypochondriasis or whether it can be attributed to high negative affectivity or other anxiety symptoms often found to be comorbid with(More)