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Lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a potential sustainable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to biofuels and other biomaterials. Several technologies have been developed during the past 80 years that allow this conversion process to occur, and the clear objective now is to make this process cost-competitive in today's markets. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND White matter lesions (WMLs) are prevalent in nondemented aging and in Alzheimer disease (AD). Their relationship with cognition in the earliest stages of AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between WMLs and cognition in nondemented aging and in early-stage AD. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Alzheimer Disease Research(More)
Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found(More)
Attempts to correlate the physical and chemical properties of biomass to its susceptibility to enzyme digestion are often inconclusive or contradictory depending on variables such as the type of substrate, the pretreatment conditions and measurement techniques. In this study, we present a direct method for measuring the key factors governing cellulose(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1 and Rad10 proteins are required for damage-specific incision during nucleotide excision repair and also for certain mitotic recombination events between repeated sequences. Previously we have demonstrated that Rad1 and Rad10 form a specific complex in vitro. Using the 'two-hybrid' genetic assay system we now report that(More)
Chimeric T84.66 (cT84.66) is a high-affinity (5 x 10(10) M-1) anti-carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) IgG1. In a recently completed pretherapy imaging trial, 111In-labeled cT84.66 demonstrated targeting of CEA-producing metastatic sites and low immunogenicity, with human antichimeric antibody (HACA) response in only 1 of 15 patients after a single(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine body composition in individuals with early AD and without dementia and its relation to cognition and brain volume. DESIGN Cross-sectional case-control study. PARTICIPANTS Individuals without dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating, 0; n = 70) and with early-stage AD (Clinical Dementia Rating, 0.5 or 1; n = 70) in the Alzheimer and Memory(More)
NADPH oxidase is a major enzymatic source of oxygen free radicals in stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). The ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), isolated from the traditional medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, inhibits the release of superoxide anion (O2*-) by this enzyme. The compound acts by blocking the(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of the earliest cognitive changes signifying Alzheimer disease is difficult. OBJECTIVE To model the cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Longitudinal archival study comparing individuals who became demented during follow-up and people who remained nondemented on each of 4 cognitive factors: global, verbal(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine short-term changes in depression and anxiety after receiving a dementia diagnosis. DESIGN Pre/post survey design. SETTING Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. PARTICIPANTS Ninety individuals and their companions. MEASUREMENTS Fifteen-item Geriatric Depression Scale and 20-item "state" version of the State-Trait Anxiety(More)