David K. Chalmers

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While the general features of HIV-1 integrase function are understood, there is still uncertainty about the composition of the integration complex and how integrase interacts with viral and host DNA. We propose an improved model of the integration complex based on current experimental evidence including a comparison with the homologous Tn5 transposase(More)
A pharmacophore-based screen identified 32 compounds including ethyl 5-amino-3-(4- tert-butylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[3,4- d]pyridazine-1-carboxylate ( 8) as a new allosteric modulator of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR). On the basis of this lead, various derivatives were prepared and evaluated for activity at the human A 1AR. A number of the test(More)
We report the development of homology models of dopamine (D(2), D(3), and D(4)), serotonin (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C)), histamine (H(1)), and muscarinic (M(1)) receptors, based on the high-resolution structure of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. The homology models were built and refined using Prime. We have addressed the required modeling(More)
A series of aminoacyl-triazine derivatives based upon the pan-PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 were identified as potent and isoform selective inhibitors of PI3Kβ. The compounds showed selectivity based upon stereochemistry with L-amino acyl derivatives preferring PI3Kβ while their D-congeners favoured PI3Kδ. The mechanistic basis of this inhibition was studied using(More)
Liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is found in high levels in enterocytes and is involved in cytosolic solubilization of fatty acids. In addition, L-FABP has been shown to bind endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds, suggesting that it may also play a role in modulating their absorption and disposition within enterocytes. Previously, we have(More)
The antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B is limited by the selection of antiviral resistance mutations. Primary resistance to lamivudine occurs at rtM2041/V in the C Domain of the polymerase. Recently, resistance to adefovir has also been described in the D Domain at rtN236T. The treatment of patients with resistant virus without complete suppression(More)
Fragment-based screening methods can be used to discover novel active site or allosteric inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. Using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and in vitro activity assays, we have identified fragment-sized inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with distinct chemical scaffolds and mechanisms compared to(More)
HIV integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in HIV replication and an important target for drug design. IN has been shown to interact with a number of cellular and viral proteins during the integration process. Disruption of these important interactions could provide a mechanism for allosteric inhibition of IN. We present the highest resolution crystal(More)
We have used virtual screening to develop models for the binding of aryl substituted heterocycles to p38α MAPK. Virtual screening was conducted on a number of p38α MAPK crystal structures using a library of 46 known p38α MAPK inhibitors containing a heterocyclic core substituted by pyridine and fluorophenyl rings (structurally related to SB203580) and a set(More)
The binding of a small molecule ligand to its protein target is most often characterized by binding affinity and is typically viewed as an on/off switch. The more complex reality is that binding involves the ligand passing through a series of intermediate states between the solution phase and the fully bound pose. We have performed a set of 29 unbiased(More)