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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is based on the coupling between neural activity and changes in the concentration of the endogenous paramagnetic contrast agent deoxygenated hemoglobin. Changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal result from a complex interplay of blood volume, flow, and oxygen consumption. Optical imaging(More)
This research investigates the hemodynamic response to stimulation of the barrel cortex in anaesthetized rats using optical imaging and spectroscopy (Bonhoeffer and Grinvald, 1996; Malonek and Grinvald, 1996; Mayhew et al., 1999). A slit spectrograph was used to collect spectral image data sequences. These were analyzed using an algorithm that corrects for(More)
A recent nonlinear system by Friston et al. (2000. NeuroImage 12: 466-477) links the changes in BOLD response to changes in neural activity. The system consists of five subsystems, linking: (1) neural activity to flow changes; (2) flow changes to oxygen delivery to tissue; (3) flow changes to changes in blood volume and venous outflow; (4) changes in flow,(More)
The spatial resolution of hemodynamic-based neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, is limited by the degree to which neurons regulate their blood supply on a fine scale. Here we investigated the spatial detail of neurovascular events with a combination of high spatiotemporal resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic optical(More)
Optical imaging slit spectroscopy is a powerful method for estimating quantitative changes in cerebral haemodynamics, such as deoxyhaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and blood volume (Hbr, HbO2 and Hbt, respectively). Its disadvantage is that there is a large loss of spatial data as one image dimension is used to encode spectral wavelength information. Single(More)
Optical imaging spectroscopy (OIS) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) data sequences from anesthetized rats were used to determine the relationship between changes in oxy-and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and changes in blood volume and flow in the presence and absence of stimulation. The data from Jones et al. (accompanying paper) were used to(More)
We describe a mathematical model linking changes in cerebral blood flow, blood volume and the blood oxygenation state in response to stimulation. The model has three compartments to take into account the fact that the cerebral blood flow and volume as measured concurrently using laser Doppler flowmetry and optical imaging spectroscopy have contributions(More)
We measure cosmological parameters using the three-dimensional power spectrum P (k) from over 200,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in combination with WMAP and other data. Our results are consistent with a " vanilla " flat adiabatic ΛCDM model without tilt (ns = 1), running tilt, tensor modes or massive neutrinos. Adding SDSS information(More)
For a list of recent papers see the backpages of this paper. Abstract Evidence on behavior of experts in credence goods markets raises an important causality issue: Do " fair prices " induce " good behavior " , or do " good experts " post " fair prices " ? To answer this question we propose and test a model with three seller types: " the good " choose fair(More)