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Over the last four decades, H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses have gradually acquired additional potential sites for glycosylation within the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here, we have examined the biological effect of additional glycosylation on the virulence of H3N2 influenza viruses. We created otherwise isogenic reassortant viruses by(More)
The study of N-linked glycosylation as it relates to virus biology has become an area of intense interest in recent years due to its ability to impart various advantages to virus survival and virulence. HIV and influenza, two clear threats to human health, have been shown to rely on expression of specific oligosaccharides to evade detection by the host(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has derived a variety of means to evade the host immune response. HIV-derived proteins, including Tat, Nef, and Env, have all been reported to decrease expression of host molecules such as CD4 and major histocompatibility complex I, which would assist in limiting viral replication. The mannose receptor (MR) on the surface(More)
BACKGROUND Chloroquine is an inexpensive and widely available 9-aminoquinolone used in the management of malaria. Recently, in vitro assays suggest that chloroquine may have utility in the treatment of several viral infections including influenza. OBJECTIVES We sought to test whether chloroquine is effective against influenza in vivo in relevant animal(More)
The mannose receptor is the best described member of the type I transmembrane C-type lectins; however much remains unanswered about the biology of the receptor. One difficulty has been the inability to consistently express high levels of a functional full length mannose receptor cDNA in mammalian cells. Another difficulty has been the lack of a human(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by an abnormal cellular and cytokine infiltration of inflamed joints. This study addresses a previously unrecognized interaction between neutrophilic-myeloperoxidase (MPO) and macrophages (Mphi) which could explain the perpetuation of inflammation associated with RA. A monoarticular arthritis was induced in female(More)
Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and(More)
Periodontal disease (PD) is generated by microorganisms. These microbes can enter the general circulation causing a bacteraemia. The result can be adverse systemic effects, which could promote conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Level A evidence supports that PD is independently associated with arterial disease. PD is a common chronic condition(More)
The macrophage MR has been the subject of investigation for over 20 years, and several important physiological functions have been described. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate MR signaling and trafficking during these processes still remain elusive. The focus of the current paper was to identify potential cellular MR-interacting proteins. An(More)
Over the past decade significant advancement has occurred in the biological and pathological role that Hp has in cardiovascular disease. Hp is an acute-phase protein with a role in the neutralization and clearance of free heme. Iron has tremendous potential for initiating vascular oxidation, inflammation and exacerbating coronary atherosclerosis. Hp(More)