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Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, induces cytopathic changes in cell culture systems and directly injures multiple susceptible organs and tissues in vivo, including the myocardium, early after infection. Biochemical analysis of the cell death pathway in CVB3-infected HeLa cells demonstrated that the 32-kDa proform of(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms through which NOS2-mediated pathways regulate graft failure in acute cardiac rejection are ill defined. To determine whether apoptosis promoted by NOS2 may contribute, we used a heterotopic transplant model to study mouse cardiac allografts placed in recipients with targeted gene deletion of NOS2. METHODS AND RESULTS Using 5(More)
The cytotoxic granzyme B (GrB)/perforin pathway has been traditionally viewed as a primary mechanism that is used by cytotoxic lymphocytes to eliminate allogeneic, virally infected and/or transformed cells. Although originally proposed to have intracellular and extracellular functions, upon the discovery that perforin, in combination with GrB, could induce(More)
Diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, is characterized by a proapoptotic and prooxidative environment. The mechanisms by which lifestyle interventions, such as exercise, benefit diabetic nephropathy are unknown. We hypothesized that exercise inhibits early diabetic nephropathy via attenuation of the mitochondrial apoptotic(More)
Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of age-related cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Granzymes are a family of serine proteases that have been traditionally viewed as initiators of immune-mediated cell death. However, recent findings suggest that the pathophysiological role of granzymes is complex. Emerging functions for granzymes in extracellular(More)
Apoptosis occurs in human cardiac allograft rejection and may occur with all degrees of rejection and even in its absence. The prevalence and severity of apoptosis is determined predominantly by the intensity of macrophage infiltration and may be mediated by NO-related mechanisms. Apoptosis of interstitial, endothelial, and inflammatory cells is also(More)
Coxsackievirus B3, a cytopathic virus in the family Picornaviridae, induces degenerative changes in host cell morphology. Here we demonstrate cytochrome c release and caspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 processing. Enforced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression markedly reduced release of cytochrome c, presentation of the mitochondrial epitope 7A6, and depressed(More)
Over the last 4 decades, heart transplantation (HTx) has evolved as a mainstream therapy for heart failure. Approximately half of patients needing HTx have organ failure consequent to atherosclerosis. Despite advances in immunosuppressive drugs, long-term success of HTx is limited by the development of a particular type of coronary atherosclerosis, referred(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical approach that utilizes light-activated drugs for the treatment of a variety of pathologic conditions. The initiating events of PDT-induced apoptosis are poorly defined. It has been shown for other proapoptotic stimuli that the integral endoplasmic reticulum protein Bap31 is cleaved by caspases 1 and 8, but not by(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is under investigation for the treatment of intimal hyperplastia in conditions such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Although smooth muscle cells (SMCs) may be a key target for treatment, the effects of PDT on these cells are poorly characterized. In the present study, apoptosis was induced in primary human aortic SMCs by the(More)