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Sites of in vivo glycation of human and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase were identified by cleavage of the borotritide-treated enzyme with trypsin, followed by gas-phase sequencing of the resulting tritium-labeled glycated peptides. A blank sequencing result, i.e. failure to detect an amino acid phenylthiohydantoin after completion of an Edman degradation(More)
The site specificity of in vitro glycation of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was examined and the results interpreted in terms of structural features of the enzyme molecule. In a phosphate buffer solution, glycation occurred at Lys231 (the main site of glycation in vivo), at Lys228 (which is not glycated in vivo), and at several unidentified(More)
In order to study the structure of the methylglucose-containing polysaccharide (MGP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis by NMR spectroscopy, we have prepared the model compound O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-D-glyceric acid. This compound, which represents the aglycon-containing terminus of MGP, was made from leucorse [O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to(More)
Incubation of carbohydrate-free human serum albumin (HSA) with fructose in an aqueous buffer at pH 7.4 resulted in glycation of epsilon-amino groups of lysyl residues. A recently developed procedure, involving analysis of hexitol amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography of phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives, was used to show that 85% of the bound(More)
10-20% of the hexose bound to human ocular lens proteins was found to be attached to epsilon-amino groups of lysyl residues via carbon 2. It was concluded that the proteins had undergone nonenzymatic reactions with endogenous fructose. This process may be important in some mammalian tissues, owing to the high crosslinking potential of fructose.
This study examines ways to prevent the success of a small boat attack (SBA) against a larger high value commercial vessel, or high value unit (HVU), through the utilization of an agent-based simulation. The geographic area of concern is the Straits of Malacca. An essential element of the scenario is the limited time available to act against the attackers.(More)
1. NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (AR) is widely distributed among animal species. It also occurs in flowering plants and fungi (yeast). 2. AR is located mainly in the kidney or renal tissue of all species examined, with the exception of fish where it occurs mainly in the liver. 3. The enzyme from each species is monomeric and has a molecular weight(More)
In mammalian tissues, carbohydrate 2-oxoaldehydes, or 'osones', formed by cleavage of carbohydrate residues from glycated proteins, cause damage to cells and tissues by cross-linking of proteins. In the substrate specificity study reported here, we show that several osones are relatively good substrates for the reduced, unactivated form of aldose reductase(More)