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The procedures and the nature of "technologies" are suggested to be broadly s~milar to those which characterize "sci-ence". In particular, there appear to be "technological para-dig~as" (or research p,rogrammes) performing a similar role to "sci~:~ntific paradigms" (or research programmes). The n.udel tries to account for both continuous changes and(More)
An approach applied previously to avian biotas is extended in this paper to other vertebrate classes to evaluate Pleistocene phylogeographic effects and to estimate temporal spans of the speciation process (speciation durations) from mitochondrial (mt) DNA data on extant taxa. Provisional molecular clocks are used to date population separations and to(More)
Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged(More)
Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels play a central role in controlling neurotransmitter release at the synapse. They can be inhibited by certain G-protein-coupled receptors, acting by a pathway intrinsic to the membrane. Here we show that this inhibition results from a direct interaction between the G-protein betagamma complex and the pore-forming alpha1(More)
Pleistocene biogeographic events have traditionally been ascribed a major role in promoting speciations and in sculpting the present-day diversity and distributions of vertebrate taxa. However, this paradigm has recently come under challenge from a review of interspecific mtDNA genetic distances in birds: most sister-species separations dated to the(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are heteromeric complexes found in the plasma membrane of virtually all cell types and show a high level of electrophysiological and pharmacological diversity. Associated with the pore-forming alpha 1 subunit are the membrane anchored, largely extracellular alpha2-delta, the cytoplasmic beta and sometimes a transmembrane(More)
Ion concentrations in the roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties that differed in NaCl tolerance were compared after exposure to NaCl. Triple-barreled H(+)-, K(+)-, and Na(+)-selective microelectrodes were used to measure cytosolic activities of the three ions after 5 and 8 d of NaCl stress. In both varieties of barley, it was only possible to(More)
The voltage-gated calcium channel beta subunit is a cytoplasmic protein that stimulates activity of the channel-forming subunit, alpha 1, in several ways. Complementary binding sites on alpha 1 and beta have been identified that are highly conserved among isoforms of the two subunits, but this interaction alone does not account for all of the functional(More)
Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, which is thought to be causal for the pathology and subsequent cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Cleavage by beta-secretase at the amino terminus of the Abeta peptide sequence, between residues 671 and 672 of APP, leads to the generation and(More)