David J Vance

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In an effort to engineer countermeasures for the category B toxin ricin, we produced and characterized a collection of epitopic tagged, heavy chain-only antibody VH domains (VHHs) specific for the ricin enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. Among the 20 unique ricin-specific VHHs we identified, six had toxin-neutralizing activity: five specific for(More)
The simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another can result in an affinity that is significantly greater than that for the binding of a single ligand to a single receptor. This concept of "polyvalency" can be used to design molecules that are potent inhibitors of toxins and pathogens. We describe the design of(More)
Ricin is a select agent toxin and a member of the RNA N-glycosidase family of medically important plant and bacterial ribosome-inactivating proteins. In this study, we determined X-ray crystal structures of the enzymatic subunit of ricin (RTA) in complex with the antigen binding domains (VHH) of five unique single-chain monoclonal antibodies that differ in(More)
In this report, we describe the X-ray crystal structures of two single domain camelid antibodies (VH H), F5 and F8, each in complex with ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA). F5 has potent toxin-neutralizing activity, while F8 has weak neutralizing activity. F5 buried a total of 1760 Å(2) in complex with RTA and made contact with three prominent secondary(More)
Nature makes extensive use of polyvalency-the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands to multiple complementary receptors. The concept of polyvalency can also be used to design synthetic scaffolds for applications ranging from the design of inhibitors for toxins and pathogens to delivery and imaging. This article reviews recent developments in the design(More)
Residues Y₉₁-T₁₁₆ of ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA) constitute an immunodominant loop-helix-loop motif that is the target of two potent toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), PB10 and R70. To define the exact epitope(s) recognized by these mAbs, we affinity enriched from a phage-displayed peptide library 12 mers that bound one or both of(More)
The B subunit (RTB) of ricin toxin is a galactose (Gal)-/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac)-specific lectin that mediates attachment, entry, and intracellular trafficking of ricin in host cells. Structurally, RTB consists of two globular domains with identical folding topologies. Domains 1 and 2 are each comprised of three homologous sub-domains (α, β, γ) that(More)
Dominant Negative Inhibitor (DNI) is a translocation-deficient homolog of recombinant protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis that is a candidate for a next generation anthrax vaccine. This study demonstrates that the biophysical characteristics of the DNI protein stored in lyophilized form at 4°C for 8 y were similar to recombinant Protective Antigen(More)
During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized(More)