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Hemoglobin degradation in intraerythrocytic malaria parasites is a vast process that occurs in an acidic digestive vacuole. Proteases that participate in this catabolic pathway have been defined. Studies of protease biosynthesis have revealed unusual targeting and activation mechanisms. Oxygen radicals and heme are released during proteolysis and must be(More)
All Plasmodium species produce a brown birefringent crystal known as malarial pigment or hemozoin. This work compares the morphology of hemozoin from P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, P. brasilianum, P. yoelii and P. gallinaceum. The human, primate and mouse hemozoins have a regular, flat-faced cuboidal morphology with modest size(More)
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a disease that is responsible for 880,000 deaths per year worldwide. Vaccine development has proved difficult and resistance has emerged for most antimalarial drugs. To discover new antimalarial chemotypes, we have used a phenotypic forward chemical genetic approach to assay 309,474 chemicals. Here we disclose(More)
Chloroquine is thought to exert its antimalarial effect by preventing the polymerization of toxic heme released during proteolysis of hemoglobin in the Plasmodium digestive vacuole. The mechanism of this blockade has not been established. We incubated cultured parasites with subinhibitory doses of [3H]chloroquine and [3H] quinidine. These [3H]quinoline(More)
Haeme metabolism remains a vulnerable problem for the intraerythrocytic Plasmodium which catabolises haemoglobin as a source of amino acids in an acidic, oxygen-rich lysosome-like digestive vacuole. Haeme monomer, capable of generating oxygen radicals, transforms into an inert crystal named malarial pigment or haemozoin by forming unique dimers that then(More)
Cerebral malaria is a severe multifactorial condition associated with the interaction of high numbers of infected erythrocytes to human brain endothelium without invasion into the brain. The result is coma and seizures with death in more than 20% of cases. Because the brain endothelium is at the interface of these processes, we investigated the global gene(More)
Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-IRBC) in postcapillary brain endothelium is a hallmark of cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis. There is a correlation between adherent Pf-IRBC and increased expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which is also a receptor for Pf-IRBC on human brain microvascular(More)
Hemozoin (malaria pigment) has been implicated in the modulation of immune responses during malaria infection. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of purified hemozoin on the in vitro activation of myeloid dendritic cells. Our study also revealed that in addition to enhancing the maturation of dendritic cells, hemozoin also greatly promotes(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a deadly complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, but specific interactions involved in cerebral homing of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are poorly understood. In this study, P. falciparum-IEs were characterized for binding to primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). Before selection, CD36 or(More)