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The cytoplasmic dynein motor complex is known to exist in multiple forms, but few specific functions have been assigned to individual subunits. A key limitation in the analysis of dynein in intact mammalian cells has been the reliance on gross perturbation of dynein function, e.g., inhibitory antibodies, depolymerization of the entire microtubule network,(More)
The selective export of proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the coat protein complex II (COPII) that assembles onto the ER membrane. In higher eukaryotes, COPII proteins assemble at discrete sites on the membrane known as ER exit sites (ERES). Here, we identify Sec16 as the protein that defines ERES in mammalian cells.(More)
The COPII complex mediates the selective incorporation of secretory cargo and relevant machinery into budding vesicles at specialised sites on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane called transitional ER (tER). Here, we show using confocal microscopy, immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections and electron tomography that in human cells at steady state,(More)
Early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport is organized by the retromer complex. Consisting of cargo-selective and membrane-bound subcomplexes, retromer coordinates sorting with membrane deformation and carrier formation. Here, we describe four mammalian retromers whose membrane-bound subcomplexes contain specific combinations of the sorting(More)
Transport of proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus is mediated by two distinct membrane coat complexes, COPI and COPII. Genetic, biochemical and morphological data have accumulated into a model which suggests a sequential mode of action with COPII mediating the selection of cargo and formation of transport vesicles at the ER(More)
Rab GTPases control vesicle movement and tethering membrane events in membrane trafficking. We used the 38 human Rab GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) to identify which of the 60 Rabs encoded in the human genome function at the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, this screen identified only two GAPs, RN-tre and TBC1D20, disrupting both Golgi organization and(More)
The COPII coat complex mediates the formation of transport carriers at specialized sites of the endoplasmic reticulum (ERES). It consists of the Sar1p GTPase and the Sec23/24p and the Sec13/31p subcomplexes . Both stimulate the GTPase activity of Sar1p , which itself triggers coat disassembly. This built-in GAP activity makes the COPII complex in principle(More)
A full mechanistic understanding of how secretory cargo proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum for passage through the early secretory pathway is essential for us to comprehend how cells are organized, maintain compartment identity, as well as how they selectively secrete proteins and other macromolecules to the extracellular space. This(More)
TGN38 is a type I integral membrane protein that constitutively cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and plasma membrane. The cytosolic domain of TGN38 interacts with AP2 clathrin adaptor complexes via the tyrosine-containing motif (-SDYQRL-) to direct internalization from the plasma membrane. This motif has previously been shown to direct both(More)