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It is often assumed that all neurons of the same cell type have identical intrinsic properties, both within an animal and between animals. We exploited the large size and small number of unambiguously identifiable neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion to test this assumption at the level of channel mRNA expression and membrane currents (measured in(More)
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are circuits that generate organized and repetitive motor patterns, such as those underlying feeding, locomotion and respiration. We summarize recent work on invertebrate CPGs which has provided new insights into how rhythmic motor patterns are produced and how they are controlled by higher-order command and modulatory(More)
How different are the neuronal circuits for a given behavior across individual animals? To address this question, we measured multiple cellular and synaptic parameters in individual preparations to see how they correlated with circuit function, using neurons and synapses in the pyloric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis.(More)
The postdevelopmental basis of cellular identity and the unique cellular output of a particular neuron type are of particular interest in the nervous system because a detailed understanding of circuits responsible for complex processes in the brain is impeded by the often ambiguous classification of neurons in these circuits. Neurons have been classified by(More)
BACKGROUND To what extent do identified neurons from different animals vary in their expression of ion channel genes? In neurons of the same type, is ion channel expression highly variable and/or is there any relationship between ion channel expression that is conserved? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To address these questions we measured ion channel(More)
Forager honey bees have high circulating levels of juvenile hormone (JH) and high brain levels of octopamine, especially in the antennal lobes, and treatment with either of these compounds induces foraging. Experiments were performed to determine whether octopamine acts more proximally than JH to affect the initiation of foraging behavior. Bees treated with(More)
Efficient division of labor is one of the main reasons for the success of the social insects. In honey bees the division of labor is principally achieved by workers changing tasks as they age. Typically, young adult bees perform a series of tasks within the colony before ultimately making the transition to foraging outside the hive for resources. This(More)
Neuronal identity depends on the regulated expression of numerous molecular components, especially ionic channels, which determine the electrical signature of a neuron. Such regulation depends on at least two key factors, activity itself and neuromodulatory input. Neuronal electrical activity can modify the expression of ionic currents in homeostatic or(More)
The nervous system faces an extremely difficult task. It must be flexible, both during development and in adult life, so that it can respond to a variety of environmental demands and produce adaptive behavior. At the same time the nervous system must be stable, so that the neural circuits that produce behavior function throughout the lifetime of the animal(More)
Biological and theoretical evidence suggest that individual neurons may achieve similar outputs by differentially balancing variable underlying ionic conductances. Despite the substantial amount of data consistent with this idea, a direct biological demonstration that cells with conserved output, particularly within the same network, achieve these outputs(More)