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A combination of culture-independent and culturing methods was used to determine the impacts of hydrocarbon contamination on the diversity of bacterial communities in coastal soil from Ross Island, Antarctica. While numbers of culturable aerobic heterotrophic microbes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than control(More)
Viable prokaryotes have been detected in basal sediments beneath the few Northern Hemisphere glaciers that have been sampled for microbial communities. However, parallel studies have not previously been conducted in the Southern Hemisphere, and subglacial environments in general are a new and underexplored niche for microbes. Unfrozen subglacial sediments(More)
A new obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium is described. The strain designated Tp8T 6331 is differentiated from thermophilic cellulolytic clostridia on the basis of physiological characteristics and phylogenetic position within the Bacillus/Clostridium subphylum of the Gram-positive bacteria. Strain Tp8T 6331 is assigned to a(More)
Thermophily is thought to be a primitive trait, characteristic of early forms of life on Earth, that has been gradually lost over evolutionary time. The genus Bacillus provides an ideal model for studying the evolution of thermophily as it is an ancient taxon and its contemporary species inhabit a range of thermal environments. The thermostability of(More)
The complete sequence of a beta-mannanase gene from an anaerobic extreme thermophile was determined, and it shows that the expressed protein consists of two catalytic domains and two binding domains separated by spacer regions rich in proline and threonine residues. The amino-terminal catalytic domain has beta-mannanase activity, and the carboxy-terminal(More)
Extraction of DNA from forensic samples typically uses either an organic extraction protocol or solid phase extraction (SPE) and these methods generally involve numerous sample transfer, wash and centrifugation steps. Although SPE has been successfully adapted to the microdevice, it can be problematic because of lengthy load times and uneven packing of the(More)
Paralana is an active, radon-containing hot spring situated in a region of South Australia's Flinders Ranges with a long history of hydrothermal activity. Our aim was to determine the bacterial composition of Paralana using a culture-independent, 16S rRNA-based technique. The presence of a diverse bacterial community was strongly suggested by the large(More)
Caldocellum saccharolyticum is an extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium capable of growth on cellulose and hemicellulose as sole carbon sources. Cellulase and hemicellulase genes have been found clustered together on its genome. The gene for one of the cellulases (celA) was isolated on a lambda genomic library clone, sequenced and found to comprise a(More)
Five bacterial isolates enriched from fuel-contaminated Antarctic soils fixed nitrogen in the dark heterotrophically and nonsymbiotically. Two isolates utilized jet fuel vapors and volatile hydrocarbons for growth but not in N-deficient medium. Bacteria such as these may contribute to in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in Antarctic soils.
Two genes, xynB and xynC, coding for xylanases were isolated from Thermotoga maritima FjSS3B.1 by a genomic-walking-PCR technique. Sequencing of the genes showed that they encode multidomain family 10 xylanases. Only XynB exhibited activity against xylan substrates. The temperature optimum (87 degrees C) and pH optimum (pH 6.5) of XynB are different from(More)