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Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) protect against acute lung injury (ALI). To determine the role of BMSC mitochondria in this protection, we airway-instilled mice first with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and then with either mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs) or human BMSCs (hBMSCs). Live optical studies revealed that the mBMSCs formed connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in children that can cause severe central nervous system disease and death. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. High-resolution structural analysis of the mature virus and natural empty particles shows that the mature virus is structurally similar to other enteroviruses. In(More)
The assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles is poorly understood. In addition, there are important differences in the antigenic and receptor binding properties of virus assembly and dissociation intermediates, and these also remain unexplained. We have established an experimental model in which the antigenicity, receptor binding(More)
Several crystal structures of the hepatitis C virus NS5B protein (genotype-1b, strain J4) complexed with metal ions, single-stranded RNA or nucleoside-triphosphates have been determined. These complexes illustrate how conserved amino acid side-chains, together with essential structural features within the active site, control nucleotide binding and likely(More)
The infectious component of hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV), the Dane particle, has a diameter of approximately 44 nm and consists of a double-layered capsid particle enclosing a circular, incomplete double-stranded DNA genome. The outer capsid layer is formed from the HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and lipid, whereas the inner layer is formed from the HB core Ag(More)
UNLABELLED Current interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is inadequate, prompting a shift toward combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) with the first protease-targeted drugs licensed in 2012. Many compounds are in the pipeline yet primarily target only three viral proteins, namely, NS3/4A protease, NS5B polymerase, and(More)
Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and(More)
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is the cellular receptor for the major group of human rhinovirus serotypes, including human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) and HRV16. A naturally occurring variant of ICAM-1, ICAM-1Kilifi, has altered binding characteristics with respect to different HRV serotypes. HRV14 binds to ICAM-1 only transiently at physiological(More)
In common with all nonenveloped viruses, the mechanism of picornavirus membrane penetration during cell entry is poorly understood. The small, myristylated capsid protein VP4 has been implicated in this process. Here we show that recombinant VP4 of human rhinovirus 16 has the ability to associate with and induce membrane permeability in otherwise intact(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cannot be grown in vitro, making biochemical identification of new drug targets especially important. HCV p7 is a small hydrophobic protein of unknown function, yet necessary for particle infectivity in related viruses [Harada, T. et al., (2000) J. Virol. 74, 9498-9506]. We show that p7 can be cross-linked in vivo as hexamers.(More)