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We show that information flow through the adult cerebellar cortex, from the mossy fiber input to the Purkinje cell output, is controlled by furosemide-sensitive, diazepam- and neurosteroid-insensitive GABA(A) receptors on granule cells, which are activated both tonically and by GABA spillover from synaptic release sites. Tonic activation of these receptors(More)
Cerebellar granule cells are inhibited phasically by GABA released synaptically from Golgi cells, but are inhibited more powerfully by tonic activity of high affinity alpha 6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. During development the tonic activity is generated by the accumulation of GABA released by action potentials, but in the adult the tonic activity is(More)
Tonic activation of excitatory and inhibitory receptors, by the ambient concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space of the brain, has been suggested to underlie phenomena as diverse as relapse to cocaine use by reward pathways in the striatum, sparse coding of motor information in the cerebellum, and control of the development of the(More)
1. The synaptic activation by mossy fibers (MFs) of unipolar brush cells (UBCs) in the vestibular cerebellum (nodulus and uvula) was examined using patch-clamp recording methods in thin, rat cerebellar slices with Lucifer yellow-filled pipettes for subsequent fluorescence microscopic verification of the cell morphology. 2. UBCs were distinguished from(More)
The problem of reconstructing a multi-dimensional field from noisy, limited projection measurements is approached using an object-based stochastic field model. Objects within a cross-section are characterized by a finite-dimensional set of parameters, which are estimated directly from limited, noisy projection measurements using maximum likelihood(More)
A novel strain of mutant mouse has been generated with a deletion of the gene encoding the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is primarily expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Patch-clamp recordings from granule cells in thin cerebellar slices were used to assess the consequences of the gene deletion. In granule cells of wild-type animals, a wide(More)
Brain ischemia results from cardiac arrest, stroke or head trauma. These conditions can cause severe brain damage and are a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Neurons are far more susceptible to ischemic damage than neighboring astrocytes, but astrocytes have diverse and important functions in many aspects of ischemic brain damage. Here we(More)
Patch-clamp recordings of granule cells in thin slices of developing rat cerebellum maintained in vitro displayed spontaneous single-channel activity mediated via activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The frequency of tonic single-channel activity was reversibly inhibited by the NMDA receptor/channel antagonists D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate(More)
Glutamate release in ischaemia triggers neuronal death. The major glial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, might protect against glutamate-evoked death by removing extracellular glutamate, or contribute to death by reversing and releasing glutamate. Previous studies of the role of GLT-1 in ischaemia have often used the GLT-1 blocker dihydrokainate at(More)