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Divergence and convergence of synaptic connections make a crucial contribution to the information processing capacity of the brain. Until recently, it was thought that transmitter released at a synapse affected only a specific postsynaptic cell. We show here that spillover of inhibitory transmitter at the Golgi to granule cell synapse produces significant(More)
We show that information flow through the adult cerebellar cortex, from the mossy fiber input to the Purkinje cell output, is controlled by furosemide-sensitive, diazepam- and neurosteroid-insensitive GABA(A) receptors on granule cells, which are activated both tonically and by GABA spillover from synaptic release sites. Tonic activation of these receptors(More)
Cerebellar granule cells are inhibited phasically by GABA released synaptically from Golgi cells, but are inhibited more powerfully by tonic activity of high affinity alpha 6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. During development the tonic activity is generated by the accumulation of GABA released by action potentials, but in the adult the tonic activity is(More)
The release of glutamate during brain anoxia or ischaemia triggers the death of neurons, causing mental or physical handicap. The mechanism of glutamate release is controversial, however. Four release mechanisms have been postulated: vesicular release dependent on external calcium or Ca2+ released from intracellular stores; release through(More)
Tonic activation of excitatory and inhibitory receptors, by the ambient concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space of the brain, has been suggested to underlie phenomena as diverse as relapse to cocaine use by reward pathways in the striatum, sparse coding of motor information in the cerebellum, and control of the development of the(More)
1. The synaptic activation by mossy fibers (MFs) of unipolar brush cells (UBCs) in the vestibular cerebellum (nodulus and uvula) was examined using patch-clamp recording methods in thin, rat cerebellar slices with Lucifer yellow-filled pipettes for subsequent fluorescence microscopic verification of the cell morphology. 2. UBCs were distinguished from(More)
Abstruct-The problem of reconstructing a multidimensional field from noisy, limited projection measurements is approached using an object-based stochastic field model. Objects within a cross section are characterized by a fiite-dimensional set of parameters, which are estimated directly from limited, noisy projection measurements using maximum likelihood(More)
The relative distribution of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) between synaptic terminals and astroglia, and the importance of EAAT2 for the uptake into terminals is still unresolved. Here we have used antibodies to glutaraldehyde-fixed d-aspartate to identify electron microscopically the sites of d-aspartate accumulation in hippocampal(More)
A novel strain of mutant mouse has been generated with a deletion of the gene encoding the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is primarily expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Patch-clamp recordings from granule cells in thin cerebellar slices were used to assess the consequences of the gene deletion. In granule cells of wild-type animals, a wide(More)
The gene encoding p120-rasGAP, a negative regulator of Ras, has been disrupted in mice. This Gap mutation affects the ability of endothelial cells to organize into a highly vascularized network and results in extensive neuronal cell death. Mutati ons in the Gap and Nf1 genes have a synergistic effect, such that embryos homozygous for mutations in both genes(More)