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We show that information flow through the adult cerebellar cortex, from the mossy fiber input to the Purkinje cell output, is controlled by furosemide-sensitive, diazepam- and neurosteroid-insensitive GABA(A) receptors on granule cells, which are activated both tonically and by GABA spillover from synaptic release sites. Tonic activation of these receptors(More)
Cerebellar granule cells are inhibited phasically by GABA released synaptically from Golgi cells, but are inhibited more powerfully by tonic activity of high affinity alpha 6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. During development the tonic activity is generated by the accumulation of GABA released by action potentials, but in the adult the tonic activity is(More)
Abstruct-The problem of reconstructing a multidimensional field from noisy, limited projection measurements is approached using an object-based stochastic field model. Objects within a cross section are characterized by a fiite-dimensional set of parameters, which are estimated directly from limited, noisy projection measurements using maximum likelihood(More)
Brain ischemia results from cardiac arrest, stroke or head trauma. These conditions can cause severe brain damage and are a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Neurons are far more susceptible to ischemic damage than neighboring astrocytes, but astrocytes have diverse and important functions in many aspects of ischemic brain damage. Here we(More)
GABA release during cerebral energy deprivation (produced by anoxia or ischemia) has been suggested either to be neuroprotective, because GABA will hyperpolarize neurons and reduce release of excitotoxic glutamate, or to be neurotoxic, because activation of GABA(A) receptors facilitates Cl- entry into neurons and consequent cell swelling. We have used the(More)
The problem considered is that of determining the shape of an object embedded within a medium from noisy tomographic projection measurements. In particular, the issue is addressed of how accurately coarse features of object geometry-size, elongation and orientation-can be characterized from noisy projection data. A maximum likelihood parameter estimation(More)
Despite lacking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, cerebellar Purkinje cells are highly vulnerable to ischaemic insults, which lead them to die necrotically in an -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-dependent manner. To investigate the electrical events leading to this cell death, we whole-cell clamped Purkinje cells in(More)
OBJECTIVE Recently, we reported that the neocortex displays impaired growth after transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at preterm gestation that is unrelated to neuronal death but is associated with decreased dendritic arbor complexity of cortical projection neurons. We hypothesized that these morphological changes constituted part of a more widespread(More)