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While it is well known that serious illness and inflammation reduce male fertility, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In adult male rats, a single injection of lipopolysaccharide at doses that induced either mild or severe inflammation, caused a biphasic decline in Leydig cell testosterone production and gonadotropin responsiveness. In the high(More)
Activin-A is a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily member that plays a pivotal role in many developmental and reproductive processes. It is also involved in neuroprotection, apoptosis of tumor and some immune cells, wound healing, and cancer. Its role as an immune-regulating protein has not previously been described. Here we demonstrate(More)
The molecular biology of metastatic potential in melanoma has been studied many times previously and changes in the expression of many genes have been linked to metastatic behaviour. What is lacking is a systematic characterization of the regulatory relationships between genes whose expression is related to metastatic potential. Such a characterization(More)
Recent studies suggest that an age-related decline in ovarian inhibin B may play a role in the increase in follicular phase FSH in menstrual cycles of older women. Considering that the peripheral feedback regulation of FSH is dictated by the overall tone of inhibins, activins, and follistatins as well as estradiol, it is essential to determine the relative(More)
Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which we have identified as having a role in inflammatory responses. We show that circulating levels of activin increase rapidly after LPS-induced challenge through activation of Toll-like receptor 4 and the key adaptor protein, MyD88. Treatment with the activin-binding protein,(More)
In vitro data have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits Leydig cell testosterone production, suggesting that NO may play a role in the suppression of steroidogenesis and spermatogenic function during inflammation. Consequently, we investigated expression of the inflammation-inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) in the inflamed adult rat testis and(More)
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a critical early mediator of acute inflammation. Activin A release coincides with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The source of circulating activin A during acute inflammation has not been identified and the(More)
Activin A, a transforming growth factor-β family cytokine, plays a crucial role in regulating the onset and severity of many inflammatory conditions, such as acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Activin A is also implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterised by insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and chronic elevation of(More)
BACKGROUND Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which is directly implicated in airway structural change and inflammation in asthma. In vitro, the biological effects of activin A are neutralized by the soluble binding protein follistatin. OBJECTIVE To determine the potential of endogenous follistatin to suppress activin(More)
Ewes homozygous (II) for the Inverdale prolificacy gene (FecXI) located on the X chromosome are infertile with "streak" ovaries. The aims of this study were to examine the ovarian morphology and plasma and tissue (or extracellular fluid) hormone concentrations in II ewes in comparison to control (++) animals. All II animals (n = 11) were found to contain no(More)