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Intrauterine exposure to diabetes is associated with an excess of diabetes and obesity in the offspring, but the effects of intrauterine exposure are confounded by genetic factors. To determine the role of the intrauterine diabetic environment per se, the prevalence of diabetes and the mean BMI were compared in siblings born before and after their mother(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the ability of tests measuring two hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin concentrations in predicting the specific microvascular complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between complications and concomitant results of the(More)
Genetic factors influence the development of type II diabetes mellitus, but genetic loci for the most common forms of diabetes have not been identified. A genomic scan was conducted to identify loci linked to diabetes and body-mass index (BMI) in Pima Indians, a Native American population with a high prevalence of type II diabetes. Among 264 nuclear(More)
The aim of this study was to identify loci influencing susceptibility to microvascular complications (nephropathy and retinopathy) in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. Affected sib-pair linkage analyses were performed on 98 diabetic sibling pairs with nephropathy in both members and on 103 sibling pairs with retinopathy in both members. Four chromosomal(More)
CONTEXT Data on the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among US youth according to racial/ethnic background and DM type are limited. OBJECTIVE To estimate DM incidence in youth aged younger than 20 years according to race/ethnicity and DM type. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A multiethnic, population-based study (The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth(More)
OBJECTIVE To review data on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to the diabetic intrauterine environment in the Pima Indians of Arizona. This population has high rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus that has a strong genetic component and develops at young ages. METHODS Since 1965, Pima Indians at least 5 years old participated in a study of diabetes(More)
BACKGROUND Early exposure to cow's milk has been implicated in the occurrence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus but there is little information about infant-feeding practices and subsequent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We examined the association between breastfeeding and NIDDM in a population with a high prevalence of this(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity's association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is well established, but is less clear with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We calculated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among diabetic youth in the USA from a six-center, population-based study of racially and ethnically diverse youth with diabetes, and we compared these rates with estimates(More)
A genome-wide linkage study was analyzed to identify loci that influence serum lipid concentrations in Pima Indians. Linkage analyses were conducted for total cholesterol measured in 998 siblings from 292 nuclear families, for total triglycerides in 547 siblings from 188 families, and for high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 590 siblings from 201(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the magnitude, characteristics, and public health importance of type 2 diabetes in North American youth. RESULTS Among 15- to 19-year-old North American Indians, prevalence of type 2 diabetes per 1000 was 50.9 for Pima Indians, 4.5 for all US American Indians, and 2.3 for Canadian Cree and Ojibway Indians in Manitoba. From 1967-1976(More)