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BACKGROUND Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Recent genetic linkage studies implicate Reelin glycoprotein in causation of autism. To further investigate these studies, brain levels of Reelin protein and mRNA and mRNAs for VLDLR, Dab-1, and GSK3 were investigated. METHODS Postmortem superior frontal,(More)
The relationships between objects in object-oriented programs are as important as the objects themselves. Unfortunately, most object-oriented programming languages provide little support for such relationships, leaving the task of implementing them entirely to the programmer. Relationships are typically hard-coded into the participating classes, resulting(More)
Prenatal viral infection has been associated with development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that late second trimester infection (E18) in(More)
Recent emerging biochemical data indicate that several important neuroregulatory genes and proteins may be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Additionally, the same genes appear to be targets of several psychotropic medications that are used to treat these disorders. Recent DNA microarray studies show that genes involved in(More)
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) have been reported in sera from the Cln3(-/-) mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), and in individuals with this fatal paediatric neurodegenerative disorder. To investigate the existence of other circulating autoreactive antibodies, we used sera from patients with JNCL and other(More)
We consider the problem of maintaining the topological order of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) in the presence of edge insertions and deletions. We present a new algorithm and, although this has inferior time complexity compared with the best previously known result, we find that its simplicity leads to better performance in practice. In addition, we(More)
We consider how to maintain the topological order of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) in the presence of edge insertions and deletions. We present a new algorithm and, although this has marginally inferior time complexity compared with the best previously known result , we find that its simplicity leads to better performance in practice. In addition, we(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) has become a popular tool to silence gene expression in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems. However, it has met with limited success in inhibiting gene expression in adult mammals. Here we demonstrate that long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can be used to create a "site-specific", transient knockdown of genes in a fashion that(More)
The Tutte polynomial of a graph, also known as the partition function of the q-state Potts model, is a 2-variable polynomial graph invariant of considerable importance in both combinatorics and statistical physics. It contains several other polynomial invariants, such as the chromatic polynomial and flow polynomial as partial evaluations, and various(More)