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The growing commerce in micro- and nanotechnology is expected to increase human exposure to submicrometer and nanoscale particles, including certain forms of amorphous silica. When inhaled, these particles are likely to reach the alveoli, where alveolar type II epithelial cells that are distinguished by apical microvilli are found. These cells play critical(More)
The cellular interactions and pathways of engineered submicro- and nano-scale particles dictate the cellular response and ultimately determine the level of toxicity or biocompatibility of the particles. Positive surface charge can increase particle internalization, and in some cases can also increase particle toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are(More)
Atopic dermatitis is a form of dermatitis commonly seen in children and adults. Its pathophysiology is complex and is centered on the barrier function of the epidermis. An important aspect of the skin's barrier is pH, which in turn affects a number of parameters such as the skin flora, protease function, and mediators of inflammation and pruritus. Normal pH(More)
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