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Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use signals recorded directly from the brain to control an external device, such as a computer cursor or a prosthetic limb. These control signals have been recorded from different levels of the brain, from field potentials at the scalp or cortical surface to single neuron action potentials. At present, the more invasive(More)
SUMMARY Epilepsy is among the most common neurologic disorders, yet it is estimated that about one third of patients do not respond favorably to currently available drug treatments and up to 50% experience major side effects of these treatments. Although surgical resection of seizure foci can provide reduction or cessation of seizure incidents, a(More)
Most neuronal ensembles are nonlinear excitable systems. Thus it is becoming common to apply principles derived from nonlinear dynamics to characterize neuronal systems. One important characterization is whether such systems contain deterministic behavior or are purely stochastic. Unfortunately, many methods used to make this distinction do not perform well(More)
Epilepsy is a relatively common disease, afflicting 1%-2% of the population, yet many epileptic patients are not sufficiently helped by current pharmacological therapies. Recent reports have suggested that chaos control techniques may be useful for electrically manipulating epileptiform bursting behavior in vitro and could possibly lead to an alternative(More)
Neuronal populations throughout the brain achieve levels of synchronous electrophysiological activity as a consequence of both normal brain function as well as during pathological states such as in epileptic seizures. Understanding this synchrony and being able to quantitatively assess the dynamics with which neuronal oscillators across the brain couple(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, it is difficult to predict precise regions of cortical activation in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Most analytical approaches focus on applied magnetic field strength in the target region as the primary factor, placing activation on the gyral crowns. However, imaging studies support M1 targets being typically(More)
The development of an epileptic "mirror" focus in an area of the brain contralateral to the primary epileptic focus typically evolves over days in the experimental setting after status epilepticus or electrical kindling of the primary focal region. In contrast, we observed the rapid development of an apparent mirror focus in the contralateral hippocampus(More)
OBJECTIVE Deep-brain electrical stimulation (DBS) is a treatment modality being explored for many neurologic diseases and is a potentially potent means of disrupting the aberrant rhythms that arise during the epileptic seizures that afflict >1% of the population. However, current DBS protocols typically employed are formulated a priori and do not reflect(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a powerful technique to noninvasively modulate cortical neurophysiology in the brain. However, the relationship between the magnetic fields created by TMS coils and neuronal activation in the cortex is still not well-understood, making predictable cortical activation by TMS difficult to achieve.(More)
Neuronal populations in the brain achieve levels of synchronous electrophysiological activity during both normal brain function and pathological states such as epileptic seizures. Understanding how the dynamics of neuronal oscillators in the brain evolve from normal to diseased states is a critical component toward decoding such complex behaviors. In this(More)