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Cytokines are the molecular messengers of the vertebrate immune system, coordinating the local and systemic immune responses to infective organisms. We report here functional and structural data on cytokine-like proteins from a eukaryotic pathogen. Two homologues of the human cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been isolated from the(More)
In humans, glutathione-dependent conjugation of halomethanes is polymorphic, with 60% of the population classed as conjugators and 40% as non-conjugators. We report the characterization of the genetic polymorphism causing the phenotypic difference. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a human class Theta GST (GSTT1) and which shares 82% sequence identity(More)
Two types of GSH peroxidase occur in the cell both of which detoxify fatty acid hydroperoxides, thymine hydroperoxide and DNA hydroperoxides. One is a Se-dependent enzyme which also detoxifies H2O2. The other contains members of the GSH transferase supergene family. These non-selenium dependent GSH peroxidases do not detoxify H2O2 and have substrate(More)
Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a supergene family of dimeric enzymes capable of detoxifying a number of carcinogenic electrophiles. Of the numerous components of tobacco smoke, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear to be the principal compounds that yield substrates for these enzymes, GSTM1-1 being effective with those PAH derivatives(More)
Much evidence supports the view that the rate of conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exo-epoxide is an important factor in determining the species variation in risk to aflatoxins and that induction of GSH S-transferases can yield a significant protective effect. An assay has been developed in which the enzymatic formation of the(More)
Cytokines and growth factors induce tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) that directly activate gene expression. Cells stably transformed by the Src oncogene tyrosine kinase were examined for STAT protein activation. Assays of electrophoretic mobility, DNA-binding specificity, and antigenicity indicated that(More)
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) of a novel class, which it is proposed to term Theta, were purified from rat and human liver. Two, named GST 5-5 and GST 12-12, were obtained from the rat, and one, named GST theta, was from the human. Unlike other mammalian GSTs they lack activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and are not retained by GSH affinity(More)
A simple small-scale purification procedure is described for GSH transferase E. This enzyme is shown to be a dimer of subunits of apparent Mr 28 500, to have an isoelectric point of pH 7.0, GSH transferase activity towards certain alkyl epoxides and alkyl halides, and to be the most active Se-independent GSH peroxidase so far described. It is present in a(More)
cDNAs were obtained for macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF)/L-dopachrome methyl ester tautomerase homologues from the parasitic nematodes Trichinella spiralis (TsMIF) and Trichuris trichiura (TtMIF). The translated sequences, which were partly confirmed by sequencing of proteolytic fragments, show 42 and 44% identity respectively with human or(More)
Cancer patients with weight loss showed urinary excretion of a lipid-mobilizing factor (LMF), determined by the ability to stimulate lipolysis in isolated murine epididymal adipocytes. Such bioactivity was not detectable in the urine of cancer patients without weight loss or in normal subjects. The LMF was purified using a combination of ion exchange,(More)