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The release of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and asparagine upon impact injury to the rat spinal cord was characterized by sample collection from the site of injury by microdialysis. Injury caused dramatic and long-lasting increases in the concentrations of the excitatory amino acids. Determination of the relationship between unperturbed extracellular(More)
In the majority of patients, spinal cord injury (SCI) results in abnormal pain syndromes in which non-noxious stimuli become noxious (allodynia). To reduce allodynia, it would be desirable to implant a permanent biological pump such as adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AM), which secrete catecholamines and opioid peptides, both antinociceptive substances,(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in abnormal locomotor and pain syndromes in humans. T13 spinal hemisection in the rat results in development of permanent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia partially due to interruption of descending inhibitory modulators such as serotonin (5-HT). We hypothesize that lumbar transplantation of nonmitotic cells(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in abnormal pain syndromes in patients. We present a recently developed SCI mammalian model of chronic central pain in which the spinal cord is contused at T8 using the NYU impactor device (10-g rod, 2.0-mm diameter, 12.5-mm drop height), an injury which is characterized behaviorally as moderate. Recovery of locomotor(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced neurodegeneration leads to irreversible and devastating motor and sensory dysfunction. Post-traumatic outcomes are determined by events occurring during the first 24 hours after SCI. An increase in extracellular glutamate concentration to neurotoxic levels is one of the earliest events after SCI. We used Affymetrix DNA(More)
"Free Zn2+" (rapidly exchangeable Zn2+) is stored along with glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of specific specialized (gluzinergic) cerebrocortical neurons. This synaptically releasable Zn2+ has been recognized as a potent modulator of glutamatergic transmission and as a key toxin in excitotoxic neuronal injury. Surprisingly (despite abundant work on(More)
Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) on the anterior aorta and ventricle muscle of the marine gastropod Aplysia are characterized. Bath-applied 5-HT depolarizes muscle fibers and causes tension increases in both the anterior aorta and ventricle above ca. 10(-9) M. Iontophoretically applied 5-HT caused localized depolarizations of anterior aorta(More)
In vivo experiments addressing the role of released glutamate in damage caused by neurotrauma seldom administer glutamate itself because it usually produces relatively little damage when administered into central nervous system (CNS) tissue in vivo. However, because of recent observations that glutamate administered into the spinal cord at the levels(More)
A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker(More)
Injecting cGMP into Aplysia neuron R14 induced an inward current similar to one elicited by application of FMRFamide to the outside of that cell. In contrast, injection of cAMP into R14 caused a long-lasting outward current and conductance increase. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors increased the cGMP and FMRFamide-induced inward currents in R14. The(More)