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The release of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and asparagine upon impact injury to the rat spinal cord was characterized by sample collection from the site of injury by microdialysis. Injury caused dramatic and long-lasting increases in the concentrations of the excitatory amino acids. Determination of the relationship between unperturbed extracellular(More)
One of the consequences of cytokine-orchestrated inflammation after CNS trauma is apoptosis. Our hypothesis is that cell death in the spinal cord after injury results in part from increased synthesis and release of IL-1beta. Using a ribonuclease protection assay, we demonstrated that there is increased transient expression of IL-1beta mRNA and, by using(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in abnormal locomotor and pain syndromes in humans. T13 spinal hemisection in the rat results in development of permanent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia partially due to interruption of descending inhibitory modulators such as serotonin (5-HT). We hypothesize that lumbar transplantation of nonmitotic cells(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced neurodegeneration leads to irreversible and devastating motor and sensory dysfunction. Post-traumatic outcomes are determined by events occurring during the first 24 hours after SCI. An increase in extracellular glutamate concentration to neurotoxic levels is one of the earliest events after SCI. We used Affymetrix DNA(More)
Grafted human neural stem cells (hNSCs) may help to alleviate functional deficits resulting from spinal cord injury by bridging gaps, replacing lost neurons or oligodendrocytes, and providing neurotrophic factors. Previously, we showed that primed hNSCs differentiated into cholinergic neurons in an intact spinal cord. In this study, we tested the fate of(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in abnormal pain syndromes in patients. We present a recently developed SCI mammalian model of chronic central pain in which the spinal cord is contused at T8 using the NYU impactor device (10-g rod, 2.0-mm diameter, 12.5-mm drop height), an injury which is characterized behaviorally as moderate. Recovery of locomotor(More)
In the majority of patients, spinal cord injury (SCI) results in abnormal pain syndromes in which non-noxious stimuli become noxious (allodynia). To reduce allodynia, it would be desirable to implant a permanent biological pump such as adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AM), which secrete catecholamines and opioid peptides, both antinociceptive substances,(More)
Rats given moderate spinal cord injury (SCI) display increases in the expression of the activated form of the transcription factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in spinal segments of dermatomes corresponding to permanent mechanical allodynia, a model of chronic central neuropathic pain (CNP; (Crown, E.D., Ye, Z., Johnson, K.M., Xu,(More)
In vivo experiments addressing the role of released glutamate in damage caused by neurotrauma seldom administer glutamate itself because it usually produces relatively little damage when administered into central nervous system (CNS) tissue in vivo. However, because of recent observations that glutamate administered into the spinal cord at the levels(More)
Elevation of extracellular glutamate contributes to cell death and functional impairments generated by spinal cord injury (SCI), in part through the activation of the neurotoxic cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). This study examines the participation of IL-1beta and its regulation by the endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in glutamate(More)