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NMDA receptors promote neuronal survival but also cause cell degeneration and neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying these opposite effects on neuronal fate are unknown. Whole-genome expression profiling revealed that NMDA receptor signaling is decoded at the genomic level through activation of two distinct, largely nonoverlapping gene-expression programs.(More)
The interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2/CD317 (tetherin) restricts the release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu antagonizes this restriction by an unknown mechanism that likely involves the down-regulation of BST-2 from the cell surface. Here, we show that the optimal removal of BST-2 from the(More)
Synapse-to-nucleus signaling triggered by synaptic NMDA receptors can lead to the buildup of a neuroprotective shield. Nuclear calcium activating the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a key role in neuroprotection acquired by synaptic activity. Here we show that in mouse hippocampal neurons, the transcription factor Atf3 (activating(More)
Synaptic activity can boost neuroprotection through a mechanism that requires synapse-to-nucleus communication and calcium signals in the cell nucleus. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons nuclear calcium is one of the most potent signals in neuronal gene expression. The induction or repression of 185 neuronal activity-regulated genes is dependent upon(More)
Cellular stress caused by genetic or environmental factors are considered to be the major inducers of cell death under pathological conditions. Induction of the apoptotic function of the tumor suppressor p53 is a common cellular response to severe genotoxic and oxidative stresses. In the nervous system, accumulation of p53 and increased p53 activity are(More)
Methodologies for synthesis of stand-alone hardware modules from C/C++ based languages have been gaining adoption for embedded system design, as an essential means to stay ahead of increasing performance, complexity, and time-to-market demands. However, using C to generate stand-alone blocks does not allow for truly seamless unification of embedded software(More)
BACKGROUND The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction(More)
The health of neurons is critically dependent on the relative signaling intensities of survival-promoting synaptic and death-inducing extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Here, we show that BDNF is a regulator of this balance and promotes neuroprotection by reducing toxic NMDA receptor signaling. BDNF acts by initiating synaptic(More)
The function of MeCP2, a methylated DNA-interacting protein that may act as a global chromatin modifier, is controlled by its phosphorylation on serine 421. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling controls synaptic activity-induced phosphorylation of MeCP2 on serine 421. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent(More)
Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis is a hallmark of neurosecretory granules, but the cellular pathway leading to the assembly of these regulated exocytotic carriers is poorly understood. Here we used the pituitary AtT-20 cell line to study the biogenesis of regulated exocytotic carriers involved in peptide hormone secretion. We show that immature secretory(More)