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Studies into the effects of stereotype threat (ST) on test performance have shed new light on race and sex differences in achievement and intelligence test scores. In this article, the authors relate ST theory to the psychometric concept of measurement invariance and show that ST effects may be viewed as a source of measurement bias. As such, ST effects are(More)
In the present paper, a general class of heteroscedastic one-factor models is considered. In these models, the residual variances of the observed scores are explicitly modelled as parametric functions of the one-dimensional factor score. A marginal maximum likelihood procedure for parameter estimation is proposed under both the assumption of multivariate(More)
The gains of scores on standardized intelligence tests (i.e., Flynn effect) have been the subject of extensive debate concerning their nature, causes, and implications. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether five intelligence tests are measurement invariant with respect to cohort. Measurement invariance implies that gains over the years can(More)
We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence (g) as a second order common factor. The results indicate(More)
Most dichotomous item response models share the assumption of latent monotonicity, which states that the probability of a positive response to an item is a nondecreasing function of a latent variable intended to be measured. Latent monotonicity cannot be evaluated directly, but it implies manifest monotonicity across a variety of observed scores, such as(More)
In this paper, the extended Rasch model for dichotomously scored items is derived from the general multivariate Bernoulli distribution. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the multivariate Bernoulli distribution to be equal to the extended Rasch model provide a new loglinear representation of the extended Rasch model. Conditions are also given under(More)
The preparation of this article was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). We are indebted to the indefatigable women of OP4425 for assistance in collecting the data of Study 1. We thank Hannah-Hanh Nguyen and Laurie O'Brien for kindly providing the descriptive statistics of their studies. Further thanks go out(More)
Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both(More)
Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of an observational tool--the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)--in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers. We hypothesized that the DB-DOS may help support the presumption of a(More)